1. Erickson, C.K., The Science of Addiction: From Neurobiology to Treatment. W.W. Norton & Co., New York, NY (2007).

2. Brick, J., Ed., Handbook of the Medical Consequences of Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Second Edition. The Haworth Press, New York (2008).

3. Erickson, C.K., Addiction Essentials: The Go-To Guide for Clinicians and Patients,
W.W. Norton, New York, NY (2011).

4. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), American Psychiatric Association, Washington, D.C. (2013).

5. Brick, J. and Erickson, C.K., Drugs, The Brain, and Behavior: The Pharmacology of Abuse and Dependence. Second Edition. Routledge, New York, NY (2013).

Screening and Epidemiology

1. Anthony, J.C., Warner, L.A., Kessler, R.C., Comparative epidemiology of dependence on tobacco, alcohol, controlled substances, and inhalants: Basic findings from the national comorbidity survey. Exp. Clin. Psychopharm.2: 244-68 (1994).

2. Chen, C.Y., Anthony, J.C., Epidemiological estimates of risk in the process of becoming dependent upon cocaine: cocaine hydrochloride powder versus crack cocaine. Psychopharmacol. 172: 78-86 (2004).

3. Grant, B.F., Dawson, D.A., Age at onset of alcohol use and its association with DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence: Results from the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. J. Subst. Abuse 9: 103-10 (1997).

4. Hasin, D.S., Hatzenbueler, M., Smith, S., Grant, B.F., Co-occurring DSM-IV drug abuse in DSM-IV drug dependence: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.  Drug Alc. Depend. 80: 117-123 (2005).

5. Hughes, J. R., Helzer, J.E., Lindberg, S.A., Prevalence of DSM/ICD-defined nicotine dependence. Drug Alc. Depend. 85: 91-102 (2006).

6. Ridenour, T.A., Maldonado-Molina, M., Compton, W.M., Spitznagel, E.L., Cottler, L.B., Factors associated with the transition from abuse to dependence among substance abusers: Implications for a measure of addictive liability.  Drug Alc. Depend. 80: 1-14 (2005).

7. Stinson, F.S., Grant, B.F., Dawson, D.A., Ruan, W.J., Huang, B., Saha, T., Comorbidity between DSM-IV alcohol and specific drug use disorders in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Drug Alc. Depend. 80: 105-16 (2005).

Terminology and Diagnosis

1. Erickson, C.K., In defense of “dependence”. Alc. Clin. Exp. Res. 32: 1-3 (2008).

2. Grant, B.F., Harford, T.C., Muthen, B.O., Yi, H., Hasin, D.S., Stinson, F.S., DSM-IV alcohol dependence and abuse: Further evidence of validity in the general population. Drug Alc. Depend. 86: 154-66 (2007).

3. Hasin, D., Hatzenbuehler, M.L., Keyes, K., Ogburn, E., Substance use disorders: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) and International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition (ICD-10). Addiction 101: 59-75 (2006).

4. Hasin, D. S., Liu, X., Alderson, D., Grant, B. F., DSM-IV alcohol dependence: A categorical or dimensional phenotype? Psychol. Med. 36: 1695-705 (2006).

5. Helser, J. E., Van den Brink, W., Guth, S.E., Should there be both categorical and dimensional criteria for the substance use disorders in DSM-V? Addiction 101: 17-22 (2006).

6. Martin, C.S., Chung, T., Langenbucher, J.W., How should we revise diagnostic criteria for substance use disorders in the DSM-V? J. Abn. Psych 117: 561-75 (2008).

Causes of Addictions

1. Blumenthal, D. M., Gold, M.S., Neurobiology of food addiction. Curr. Op. Clin. Nutr. Met. Care 13: 359-365 (2010).

2. Cami, J., Farre, M., Drug addiction. New Engl. J. Med. 349: 975-86 (2003).

3. DiFranza, J.R., Hooked from the first cigarette. Sci. Amer. 82-7 (May, 2008).

4. George, D.T., Gilman, J., Hersh, J., Thorsell, A., Herion, D et al., Neurokinin 1 receptor antagonism as a possible therapy for alcoholism.Science 319: 1536-9 (2008).

5. Johnson, B.A., Ait-Daoud, N., Senevirantne, C., Roache, J.D., Javors, J.D., Wand, X-Q., Liu, L., Penberthy, J.K., DiClemente, C.C., Li, M.D., Pharmacogenetic approach at the serotonin transporter gene as a method of reducing the severity of alcohol drinking. Am. J. Psychiat. 168: 265-75 (2011).

6. Koob, G.F., Volkow, N.D., Neurocircuitry of addiction. Neuropsychopharm. Rev. 35: 217-238 (2010).

7. Leshner, A.I., Addiction is a brain disease. Science 278: 45-7 (1997).

8. McAuliffe, P.F., Gold, M.S., Bajpai, L., Merves, M.L., Frost-Pineda, K., Pomm, R.M., Goldberger, B.A., Melker, R.J., Cendan, J.C., Second-hand exposure to aerosolized intravenous anesthetics propofol and fentanyl may cause sensitization and subsequent opiate addiction among anesthesiologists and surgeons. Med. Hypoth. 66: 874-82 (2006).

9. McLellan, A.T., Lewis, D.C., O’Brien, C.P., Kleber, H.D., Drug dependence, a chronic medical illness. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 284: 1689-95 (2000).

10. Renthal, W., Nestler, E.J., Epigenetic mechanisms in drug addiction. Tr. Mol. Med. 14: 341-50 (2008).

11. Norman, S.B., Tate, S.R., Anderson, K.G., Brown, S.A., Do trauma history and PTSD symptoms influence addiction relapse context? Drug Alc. Depend. 90: 89-96 (2007).

12. Reuter, J., Raedler, T., Rose, M., Hand, I., Glascher, J., Buchel, C., Pathological gambling is linked to reduced activation of the mesolimbic reward system. Nature Neurosci. 8: 147-8 (2005).

13. Robinson, T.E., Berridge, R.C., The psychology and neurobiology of addiction: an incentive-sensitization view Addiction 95 (Suppl. 2): S91-S117 (2000).

14. Sanchis-Segura, C., Borchardt, T., Vengeliene, V., Zghoul, T., Bachteler, D., Gass, P., Sprengel, R., Spanagel, R., Involvement of the AMPA receptor GluR-C subunit in alcohol-seeking behavior and relapse. J. Neurosci. 26: 1231-8 (2006).

15. Sturgess, J.E., George, T.P., Kennedy, J.L., Heinz, A., Muller, D.J. Pharmacogenetics of alcohol, nicotine and drug addiction treatments Addict. Biol. (in press, 2011).

16. Wagner, F.A., Anthony, J.C., From first drug use to drug dependence: Developmental periods of risk for dependence upon marijuana, cocaine, and alcohol. Neuropsychopharm. 26: 479-88 (2002).

17. Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J., Everitt, B.J., Drug seeking becomes compulsive after prolonged cocaine self-administration. Science 305: 1017-19 (2004).

18. Winstanley, C.A., Cocker, P.J., Rogers, R.D., Dopamine modulates reward expectancy during performance of a slot machine task in rats: Evidence for a ‘near-miss’ effect. Neuropsychopharm. 36:913-925 (2011).

Treatment of Addictions

1. Betty Ford Institute Consensus Panel, What is recovery? A working definition from the Betty Ford Institute.  J. Subst. Abuse Treat. 33: 221-8 (2007).

2. Dackis, C.A., Kampman, K.M., Lynch, K.G., Pettinati, H.M., O’Brien, C.P., A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of modafinil for cocaine dependence. Neuropsychopharm. 30: 205-11 (2005).

3. Hays, J.T., Ebbert, J.O., Varenicline for tobacco dependence New Eng. J. Med. 359: 2018 – 24 (2008).

4. Hollander, E., Pallanti, S., Allen, A., Sood, E., Rossi, N.B., Does sustained-release lithium reduce impulsive gambling and affective instability versus placebo in pathological gamblers with bipolar spectrum disorders? Amer. J. Psychiat. 162: 137-45 (2005).

5. Jayaram-Lindstrom, N., Hammarberg, A., Beck, O., Franck, J., Naltrexone for the treatment of amphetamine dependence: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am. J. Psychiat. 165: 1442-8 (2008).

6. Johnson, B.A., Swift, R.M., Ait-Doud, N., DiClemente, C.C., Javors, M.A., Malcom, R.J., Development of novel pharmacotherapies for the treatment of alcohol dependence: Focus on antiepileptics. Alc. Clin. Exp. Res.  28: 295-301 (2004).

7. Kranzler, H.R., Koob, G., Gastfriend, D.R., Swift, R.M., Willenbring, M.L., Advances in the pharmacotherapy of alcoholism: Challenging misconceptions.  Alc. Clin. Exp. Res., 30: 272-81 (2006).

8. Madras, B.K., Compton, W.M., Avula, D., Stegbauer, T., Stein, J.B., Clark, H.W., Screening, brief interventions, referral to treatment (SBIRT) for illicit drug and alcohol use at multiple healthcare sites: Comparison at intake and 6 months later. Drug Alc. Depend. 99: 280-95 (2009).

9. O’Malley, S.S., Rounsaville, B.J., Farren, C., Namkoong, K., Wu, R., Robinson, J., O’Connor, P.G., Initial and maintenance naltrexone treatment for alcohol dependence using primary care vs. specialty care. Arch. Intern. Med. 163: 1695-704 (2003).

10. Saitz, R., Unhealthy alcohol use. New Eng. J. Med. 352: 596-606 (2005).

Adolescent Studies

1. Alcohol Health and Research World, Alcohol and development in youth: A multidisciplinary overview 28 (3) (2004/2005), and Focus on young adult drinking 28 (4), (2004/2005).

2. Alati, R., Al Mamum, A., Williams, G.M., O’Callaghan, M., Najman, J.M., Bor, W., In utero alcohol exposure and prediction of alcohol disorders in early adulthood: a birth cohort study. Archiv. Gen. Psychiat. 63: 1009-16 (2006).

3. Bookstein, F.L., Streissguth, A.P., Connor, P.D., Sampson, P.D., Damage to the human cerebellum from prenatal alcohol exposure: The anatomy of a simple biometrical explanation. Anat. Rec. B New Anat. 289: 195-209 (2006).

4. Chambers, R.A., Taylor, J.R., Potenza, M.N., Developmental neurocircuitry of motivation in adolescence: A critical period of addiction vulnerability. Am. J. Psychiat. 160: 1041-52 (2003).

5. De Bellis, M.D., Narasimhan, A., Thatcher, D.L., Keshavan, M.S., Soloff, P., Clark, D.B., Prefrontal cortex, thalamus, and cerebellar volumes in adolescents and young adults with adolescent-onset alcohol use disorders and comorbid mental disorders. Alc. Clin. Exp. Res. 29: 1590-1600 (2005).

6. Ehlers, C.L., Phillips, E., Finnerman, G., Gilder, D., Lau, P., Criado, J., P3 components and adolescent binge drinking in Southwest California Indians. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 29: 153-63 (2007).

7. Heffernan, T.M., Bartholomew, J., Does excessive alcohol use in teenagers affect their everyday prospective memory? J. Adolesc. Health 39: 138-40 (2006).

8. Hingson, R.W., Heeren, T., Winter, M.R., Age at drinking onset and alcohol dependence: Age at onset, duration, and severity Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med.  160: 739-46 (2006).

9. Kuperman, S., Schlosser, S.S., Kramer, J.R., Bucholz, K., Hesselbrock, V., Reich, T., Reich, W., Developmental sequence from disruptive behavior diagnosis to adolescent alcohol dependence. Am. J. Psychiat. 158: 2022-6 (2001).

10. Sher, L., Functional magnetic resonance imaging in studies of neurocognitive effects of alcohol use on adolescents and young adults. Int. J. Adolesc. Med. Health 18: 3-7 (2006).

11. Tarter, R.E., Kirisci, L., Mezzich, A., Cornelius, J.R., Pajer, K., Vanyukov, M., Gardner, W., Blackson. T., Clark, D., Neurobiological disinhibition in childhood predicts early age at onset of substance use disorder. Am. J. Psychiat. 160: 1078-85 (2003).

12. Willens, T.E., Faraone, S.V., Biederman, J., Gunawardene, S., Does stimulant therapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder beget later substance abuse? A meta-analytic review of the literature. Pediatr. 111: 179-85 (2003).

13. White, A.M., Swartzwelder, H.S., Hippocampal function during adolescence: A unique target of ethanol effects Ann. NY Acad. Sc 1021: 206-20 (2004).

14. Winqvist, S., Jokelainen, J., Luukinen, H., Hillbom, M., Adolescents’ drinking habits predict later occurrence of traumatic brain injury: 35-year follow-up of the northern Finland 1966 birth cohort. J. Adolesc. Health 39: 275-7 (2006).

15. Zeigler, D.W., Wang, C.C., Yoast, R.A., Dickinson, B.D., McCaffree, M.A., Robinowitz, C.B., Sterling, M.L., Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association, The neurocognitive effects of alcohol on adolescents and college students. Prev. Med 40: 23-32 (2005).

Brain Scan Studies

1. Buchert, R., Thomasius, R., Wilke, F., Petersen, K., Nebeling, B., Obrocki, J., Schulze, O., Schmidt, U., Clausen, M., A voxel-based PET investigation of the long-term effects of “ecstasy” consumption on brain serotonin transporters. Am. J. Psychiat.   161: 1181-1189 (2004).

2. Furmark, T., Tillfors, M., Marteinsdottir, I., Fischer, H., Pissiota, A., Langstrom, B., Fredrikson, M., Common changes in cerebral blood flow in patients with social phobia treated with citalopram or cognitive-behavioral therapy. Arch. Gen. Psychiat.  59: 425-433 (2002).

3. Georgopoulos, A.P., Tan, H-R.M., Lewis, S.M., Leuthold, A.C., Winskowski, A.M., Lynch, J.K., Engdahl, B., The synchronous neural interactions test as a functional neuromarker for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): A robust classification method based on the bootstrap. J. Neural Eng. 7: (2010) 016011 doi:10.1088/1741-2560/7/1/016011

4. Goldapple, K., Segal, Z., Garson, C., Lau, M., Bieling, P., Kennedy, S., Mayberg, H., Modulation of cortical-limbic pathways in major depression: Treatment-specific cognitive behavior therapy. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 61: 34-41 (2004).

5. Paquette, V., Levesque, J., Mensour, B., Leroux, J. -M., Beaudoin, G., Bourgouin, P., Beauregard, M., “Change the mind and you change the brain”: Effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on the neural correlates of spider phobia. NeuroImage 18: 401-409 (2003).

6. Penades, R., Boget, T., Lomena, F., Mateos, J.J., Catalan, R., Gasto, C., Salamero, M., Could the hypofrontality pattern in schizophrenia be modified through neuropsychological rehabilitation? Acta Psychiat. Scand. 105: 202-208 (2002).

7. Volkow, N.D., Expectation and brain function in drug abuse. Am. J.  Psychiat. 161:621 (2004).

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