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Archive for September, 2014

Memory Bandwidth Requirements of the HPL benchmark

Posted by John D. McCalpin, Ph.D. on 11th September 2014

The High Performance LINPACK (HPL) benchmark is well known for delivering a high fraction of peak floating-point performance. The (historically) excellent scaling of performance as the number of processors is increased and as the frequency is increased suggests that memory bandwidth has not been a performance limiter.

But this does not mean that memory bandwidth will *never* be a performance limiter. The algorithms used by HPL have lots of data re-use (both in registers and from the caches), but the data still has to go to and from memory, so the bandwidth requirement is not zero, which means that at some point in scaling the number of cores or frequency or FP operations per cycle, we are going to run out of the available memory bandwidth. The question naturally arises: “Are we (almost) there yet?”

Using Intel’s optimized HPL implementation, a medium-sized (N=18000) 8-core (single socket) HPL run on a Stampede compute node (3.1 GHz, 8 cores/chip, 8 FP ops/cycle) showed about 15 GB/s sustained memory bandwidth at about 165 GFLOPS. This level of bandwidth utilization should be no trouble at all (even when running on two sockets), given the 51.2 GB/s peak memory bandwidth (~38 GB/s sustainable) on each socket.

But if we scale this to the peak performance of a new Haswell EP processor (e.g., 2.6 GHz, 12 cores/chip, 16 FP ops/cycle), it suggests that we will need about 40 GB/s of memory bandwidth for a single-socket HPL run and about 80 GB/s of memory bandwidth for a 2-socket run. A single Haswell chip can only deliver about 60 GB/s sustained memory bandwidth, so the latter value is a problem, and it means that we expect LINPACK on a 2-socket Haswell system to require attention to memory placement.

A colleague here at TACC ran into this while testing on a 2-socket Haswell EP system. Running in the default mode showed poor scaling beyond one socket. Running the same binary under “numactl —interleave=0,1” eliminated most (but not all) of the scaling issues. I will need to look at the numbers in more detail, but it looks like the required chip-to-chip bandwidth (when using interleaved memory) may be slightly higher than what the QPI interface can sustain.

Just another reminder that overheads that are “negligible” may not stay that way in the presence of exponential performance growth.

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