AMAZON Basin (2015)
The large rivers Group of Prof. Latrubesse conducted fieldwork in the Amazon basin related to ongoing NSF and Science without Borders-CAPEs projects in the summer of 2015. The first field stage involved paleoecological and Quaternary research in Brazilian Southwestern Amazon with colleagues from University of Acre and University of Rochester. The second field phase took place along the Amazon River in between the confluences with Negro and Madeira Rivers. This study is part of the research project of Doctoral Candidate Edward Park and the field work was developed in collaboration with Prof. Maximiliano Bayer (UFG-Brazil) and Prof. Latrubesse’s Brazilian graduate student, Landerlei Almeida (UNESP). The research objectives aims to investigate the impacts of tributaries on suspended sediment distribution patterns along the anabranching main channel of the Amazon River. The Amazon confluences with the Negro River is the largest on Earth in water discharge where distinct water types meet: Solimões-Amazon (muddy white water) and Negro (black water) Rivers. They collected water velocity and acoustic backscatter data using Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) from critical transects along the Amazon River. Acoustic backscatter data is particularly important because it could be calibrated with suspended and bed loads to calculate the total sediment flux of the river. Along with ADCP data, they also collected water quality data (pH, temperature, turbidity, etc.) at a multiple depth using Hanna Water Quality Meter, bathymetric data using Furuno Multi-beam Echo Sounder and Humminbird Side-scan Sonar, surface sediment on river and floodplains, and lake sediment cores in floodplains. Results on surface water patterns were recently published in the prestigious journal Water Resources Research (Park and Latrubesse, 2015) under the title “Surface water types and sediment distribution patterns at the confluence of mega rivers: The Solimões-Amazon and Negro Rivers”.
The third field phase concentrated in the upper Amazon in Peruvian territory. Prof. Latrubesse conducted geomorphologic studies to reconstruct the paleogeography of the Amazon basin as part of the ongoing NSF-FESD project. Prof. Thomas Dunne (UCSB) and Prof. Rolf Aalto (U. of Exeter) joined this field expedition.
The team also attended the 9th Symposium of River Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics (RCEM). Prof. Latrubesse is member of the International Advisory Board of the organization, and he was in charge of a field course on the Amazon titled The Amazon River from late Tertiary to present: paleogeographic reorganization of the basin, Quaternary record and present morphodynamic. Doctoral Candidate Edward Park offered an oral presentation and attended an advance course on the use of Acoustic Doppler Profilers.
MADEIRA RIVER (2011–2012-2013)
Long field expeditions to the Madeira river were carried out during the summer of 2011, December 2012 as part of the National Geographic project Exploring a soon to be lost Amazon world: a geomorphologic, paleontologic and geo-archaeologic expedition to the Madeira River and the NSF project Morphodynamics of the Madeira River: An Amazonian Anabranching Mega-River Facing Imminent Disruption. Participated in these expeditions Dr. Samia Aquino (UT-Austin), Prof. Jorge bad (Univ. of Pittsburgh), Prof. Naziano Filizola (UFAM), Prof. Jose. C. Stevaux (UNESP) and the graduated students Harumi Fujita (UNESP-UNIOESTE), Christine Bonthius (UT-Austin), Michele Tizuka (UNESP) and Christian Frias (Univ. Pittsburgh). The researchers had the support of paleontologist and archeologist of Scientia, a specialized firm in geoarcheology and paleontology that is in charge of rescuing the archeological remains before being flooded by the dams under construction in the Madeira river. The team was collecting Quaternary Geology, hydro-geomorphologic, sedimentologic , hydraulic and morphodynamics information and used acoustic Doppler ADCP, echosound coupled to a GPS, a dual frequency Stratabox and other equipment.
An exploratory field trip was carried out by Prof. Latrubesse and Prof. Maximiliano Bayer (Universidade Federal de Goias, Brazil) during the summer field season of 2011 to assess the potential impact by dams in Xingú river where a major, billionaire and controversial hydropower enterprise, the Monte Belo dam, is planned to be constructed by the Brazilian government. Bayer and Latrubesse travelled by boat more than 350 miles collecting geomorphologic and sedimentologic informationalong the Xingu River, one of the most beautiful and pristine areas of the Amazon basin that unfortunately is endanger because the dam construction.