Energy Efficiency as a Solution to Turkey’s Growing Energy Demand

Three-quarters of Turkey’s emissions come from the energy sector. Not only is energy already the greatest source of emissions, the demand is also growing steadily. In 2010 the demand rose by 9.4%, almost double the world average of 5.6% and triple the 3.5% increase of the other OECD countries. (This disproportionate rate of increase should not be confused with high energy use per capita. On the contrary, Turkey’s per capita energy consumption is half that of the European Union and just below the global average. It is this disparity that awards Turkey an exemption from quantitative pledges, despite its Annex-1 status.)  Such increases in demand have caused Turkey concern over the ability to meet the growing need.

TR Emissions by Sector Figure 1: Turkey’s 2010 GHG Emissions by Sector


In recognition of this trend towards increasing energy demands, Turkey instituted an Energy Efficiency Law in 2007. This law created an Energy Efficiency Coordination Board and set the stage for implementing efficiency by requiring industries and business to appoint an “energy manager” and initiating tools for public awareness and training. Since then, regulations have been set regarding lighting, appliances, heating and cooling, building performance, and transportation. In 2012, the Ministry of Environment and Urbanism issued a Regulation on Monitoring of Greenhouse Gas Emissions. This regulation established procedures for mandatory monitoring and reporting by facilities that were characterized by certain activities. Such facilities include oil refineries, certain steel and iron production plants, clinker facilities above certain capacities, and large paper product factories.

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UNFCCC Releases Technical Paper on LULUCF Under CDM

On April 23, 2014, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) published a report titled “Options for possible additional land use, land-use change and forestry activities and alternative approaches to addressing the risk of non-permanence under the clean development mechanism.” “Non-permanence” according to the UNFCCC, refers to the temporary nature of the removals, given that carbon contained in the biomass of trees is at a continuous risk of being emitted into the atmosphere.” This occurs when carbon stocks accumulated and certified under a LULUCF project activity are released back into the atmosphere. This can be caused by either common natural hazards (unintentional reversal) or a decision by the project participants (intentional reversal). Normal fluctuations in “carbon stocks from natural hazards (e.g. fires and pests) or management actions (e.g. selective logging) that do not decrease the carbon stocks below the minimum level required for CERs do not qualify as reversals.”

UNFCCC Adaptation

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What will it take for Wind Power to Fly in India

A growing middle class, increasing energy consumption and the quest for energy security. These are the reasons why being the fifth largest producer of wind energy  is simply not enough for India. The country currently boasts a capacity of 19 GW, However, according to the 12th Five Year Plan (2012-2017), India is targeting another 18.5 GW of renewable energy, 11 GW of which is to come from wind power. Given recent technological innovations, it is possible to accelerate the large scale deployment of wind technologies and add around 30 GW to the total capacity by 2020. However, in order to achieve this target and move towards capitalizing on the 103 GW of total potential, India must overcome a number of technical, institutional and market barriers. Read more ›

Challenges of a Growing Population: China

China Crowd

By 2030, The Economist projects 1 billion Chinese, or 70 percent of the population, will live in urban centers compared to 50 percent in 2014. This presents a great challenge to the cause. In an effort to spread out the growth, Beijing has plans to move upwards of 5 million residents to neighboring Hebei Province, aiming to cap population to 18 million by 2020.

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Greenhouse Gas Emissions within Australia’s AFOLU Sector



According to a recent report released by the Australian Government, the country’s agriculture, forestry, and other land use sector (AFOLU) accounted for approximately 104.1 MtCO2e (19%) of its total 2013 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (agriculture, 89.6 MtCO2e, and LULUCF, 14.5 MtCO2e).


Between 1990 and 2011, reductions in land clearing and removals from afforestation/reforestation resulted in a decline in emissions in the country’s LULUCF sector. Between 1990 and 2010, emissions from deforestation alone decreased by 68% due to economic conditions and regulatory changes. Future emissions from land clearing will depend heavily on the farmers’ terms of trade, which is defined as “the ratio of an index of prices received by farmers to an index of prices paid by farmers” (Australian National Greenhouse Accounts, 2013). In other words, higher prices for agricultural products would likely result in farmers increasing their land clearing efforts to allow for greater levels of production.

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Eskom’s Role in South Africa’s Electricity Generation and Efficiency

South Africa’s energy production sector is fairly concentrated among a few actors. 85% of coal mining (~80% of SA’s energy and 90% of its electricity production) is controlled by five companies. Electricity generation is even more concentrated. Though the state owned Eskom does not have exclusive rights, it does produce 95% of SA’s electricity. It does so at one of the cheapest rates in the world.

Electricity rates have been particularly low for the industry sector. Though this is common globally due to contracts with large electricity users, this disparity is greatest in South Africa.

However, the electricity grid capacity in South Africa is proving insufficient for growing demand. Eskom, has had to significantly increase the traditionally low prices in order to garner resources for investments. These price hikes have affected all sectors equally, despite the fact that industries already have such a price benefit. This reduces the value of energy efficiency for industrial users, at the expense of government subsidies. The incentives for improvement must be more tangible for a wide scale industrial movement.

Table 1: Electricity Prices in Various Countries – USD cents/kWh, adjusted for PPP

SA electricity pricing

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South Africa: is the Future More Coal or Renewables?

The African continent has a lot to lose with regards to future climate change. The twisted irony is that many of these countries are not major contributors to global emissions. However, this cannot be said of South Africa which, at roughly 500 MtCO2e/year, contributes 40% of the continent’s greenhouse gas. Similarly, 30% of Africa’s energy consumption is within South Africa.

The energy sector is responsible for over four-fifths of South Africa’s emissions (85% in 2009). With 95% of Africa’s coal reserves in its borders, it is not surprising that nearly three-fourths of South Africa’s energy consumption is derived from coal. With this emissions profile in mind, greenhouse gas reductions related to energy – both production and efficiency – will be key drivers for South Africa’s emissions reductions.


SA energy breakdownFigure 1: Total Primary Energy Consumption in South Africa, 2012

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Current and Projected GHG Emissions in Canada’s Energy Production Sector

As can be seen from the chart below, Canada’s oil and gas sector and electricity sector, both subsets of the energy production sector, account for approximately 37% of the country’s total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The oil and gas sector is responsible for 173 MtCO2e and the electricity sector produces 86 MtCO2e. Canada’s oil sector emissions can be further divided into conventional oil production, natural gas production, and the oil sands.

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Distribution of GHG Emissions by Sector, Canada, 2012
Source: Environment Canada

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EPA Clamps Down on Emissions from Natural Gas Production

On April 15, 2014, EPA released five technical white papers on potentially significant sources of emissions in the oil and gas sector. The papers covered compressors, emissions from well completions and ongoing production of hydraulically fractured oil wells, methane leaks, liquids and unloading, and pneumatic devices. This effort was part of the Obama Administration’s Strategy to Reduce Methane Emissions as part of the overall Climate Action Plan. These papers focus on technical issues covering emissions and mitigation techniques that target methane and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).  All five white papers present data and mitigation techniques for emissions from each source as well as issues not addressed in the EPA’s 2012 New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for VOCs. These proposed rules, if enforced, will yield a 95% reduction in VOC emissions from more than 11,000 new hydraulically fractured gas wells each year.

Natural gas production

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CCS in Poland and Germany

Polish President Bronisław Komorowski

Both Poland and Germany could greatly reduce GHG emissions with the use of CCS technology. However,  political and financial barriers will inhibit the deployment of CCS. Keep reading if you’d like to find out what those barriers are, and recommendations for overcoming them!

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