“It is the unique role of quality physical education programs to develop the health-related fitness, physical competence, and cognitive understanding about physical activity for all students so that they can adopt healthy and physically active lifestyles.”
National Association for Sport and Physical Education
To ensure a healthy future, children must be given the knowledge of the importance of daily physical activity for good health and the physical skills that will allow them to participate in physical activity for a lifetime. In addition, they must also experience the personal enjoyment that can come from being physically active. Therefore, physical education classes at the University of Texas Elementary School will allow students sufficient activity time for health-related fitness, will teach them a variety of skills so they are capable of participating in an assortment of lifetime physical activities, and will allow students to experience the implicit fun and enjoyment that can come from leading a healthy, active lifestyle.
UT Elementary’s health and physical education teacher and onsite wellness interventionist for third-through-fifth-grades is Brian ‘Coach D’ Dauenhauer, and Bob ‘Coach K’ Knipe teaches physical education for pre kindergarten through second grade and is the WellNest Afterschool Program Director.
Standards for Instruction & Assessment
The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) and the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for Physical Education provide the curricular framework for our program. The following student outcome objectives are based on these standards and are addressed within the curriculum:
- will demonstrate competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.
- will demonstrate understanding of movement concepts, principles, strategies, and tactics as they apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.
- will participate regularly in physical activity.
- will achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical fitness.
- will exhibit responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others in physical activity settings.
- will value physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expression, and/or social interaction.
Physical education teachers at UT Elementary also adhere to the Appropriate Practices for Elementary School Physical Education suggested by NASPE. They include supporting cultural diversity, not using exercise as punishment, facilitating maximum participation for every student, and maintaining a positive learning environment.
Assessment in physical education includes daily monitoring of attendance, attire, attitude, participation, and citizenship. It also includes unit-based skill assessments, such as dribbling and passing in basketball units and throwing and catching in baseball/softball units. Younger students are assessed on more basic locomotor skills such as skipping, galloping and hopping. In kindergarten, second grade, and fifth grade, students are assessed using NASPE’s PEMetrics, the first nationally validated assessment instrument for physical education. And students in grades 2-5 participate in the FitnessGram test battery 3 times per school year.
The University of Texas Elementary School is pleased to have an ongoing consulting relationship with Dolly Lambdin, a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Kinesiology and Health Education at The University of Texas at Austin. Dr. Lambdin was the 2004-2005 President of the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. She has 16 years of teaching experience at the elementary school level and over 30 years at the university level. Her book, “Putting Research to Work in Elementary Physical Education: Conversations in the Gym” coauthored by Lawrence Locke, reviews 30 research studies addressing such topics as instruction, class management, program design, and workplace conditions in elementary school physical education. Lambdin incorporates a large base of research topics into the practice of teaching quality physical education.
The University of Texas Elementary School is also pleased to collaborate with Xiaofen Keating and Louis Harrison, both Associate Professors in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction’s newly developed Physical Education Teacher Education program. Dr. Keating’s research interests include college students’ physical activity patterns and the use of fitness testing in schools. Dr. Harrison has focused his research on the influences of race related self-schemata and African American racial identity on physical activity choices and performance. Dr. Keating and Dr. Harrison provide guidance to the physical education teachers at UT Elementary School and supervise ongoing research projects at the school.
Application of Research
SPARK (Sport, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids) is a research-based physical education curriculum designed to “promote high levels of physical activity, teach movement skills, and be enjoyable”. Results from multiple publications indicate that SPARK lessons taught by physical education specialists can improve time spent in physical activity, can improve skill development in catching and throwing, and is given high ratings of enjoyment by students.
CATCH (Coordinated Approach to Child Health) is a coordinated school health curriculum approved by the Texas Education Agency that contains a physical education component in the form of a card file of various warm-up activities, aerobic activities, practice activities, and skill lead-up games. The program has been shown to increase levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity during physical education classes and increase daily vigorous physical activity in children.
Physical activities, lessons, and teaching strategies are utilized from these two established programs in the physical education curriculum at the University of Texas Elementary School to provide students with maximal opportunities to be physically active, practice skills, and connect these learning to principles of good health and positive nutrition.
In addition to applying established research, the University of Texas Elementary School is excited to be actively involved in cutting-edge research to determine the effectiveness of a novel approach to physical education. Brian Dauenhauer, the school’s physical education teacher and wellness interventionist is also a doctoral student in Curriculum and Instruction. He is currently the principal investigator on a study called Applying the 3-Tier Response to Intervention (RTI) Model to Promote Physical Activity (PA) and Prevent Obesity among Minority Elementary Students in an Urban Setting. The purpose of the investigation is to determine if a model currently being used in other academic areas can be applied to physical education to increase physical activity, enhance fitness, and improve the body composition of the students at UT Elementary School. The results of this study, if successful, could serve as a model of what physical education could look like in the public school system.
The 3-tier response to intervention model offers multiple levels of instruction that vary in scope and intensity. Instructional decisions are based on physical activity data collected with pedometers, fitness data collected using FitnessGram, and body mass index collected by the school nurse. The 3 levels of intervention consist of the following strategies:
Tier 1- Core Instructional Interventions
- Quality physical education
- 150 minutes per week
- National standards- and Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)-based curriculum
- Taught by qualified physical education specialist(s)
- ≥ 50% moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA)
- Sufficient equipment, space, time, teacher/student ratio
- Quality health instruction
- National standards/TEKS based curriculum
- Curricular emphasis on nutrition
- Functional School Health Advisory Council (SHAC)
- Effective implementation of a coordinated school health program (CSHP)
- Strict implementation of a school nutrition policy and a local wellness policy
- Improved nutrition services
Tier 2- Targeted Group Interventions
- Small groups of students meeting during school hours with physical educator
- Weekly or bi-weekly
- PA and nutrition goal-setting and progress monitoring
- Special homework assignments/challenges related to physical activity and nutrition
- Assistance with accessing appropriate after-school care facilities
Tier 3- Intensive, Family Interventions
- 9-week after school program (KidShape)
- Students and parents involved together
- Extensive training for students and parents in relation to healthy eating and PA
- Family activities (cooking, active games)
- Psychological counseling
The opportunity for students to be exposed to new and innovative curricula and instruction in physical education sets the University of Texas Elementary School apart from other schools and enhances the overall experience that students receive.
Health Education & Nutrition
Students at the University of Texas Elementary School participate in 30 minutes of health instruction each week as part of special areas. The Great Body Shop provides a research-based comprehensive health curriculum for grades K-5 that the physical education teachers implement. Each month, students receive colored issues of the Great Body Shop that have articles and activities related to a variety of health topics. The scope of the health curriculum includes:
- injury prevention and personal safety
- functions of the body
- growth & development/cycle of family life
- HIV/AIDS and illness prevention
- substance abuse prevention
- community health and safety
- self-worth, mental and emotional health
- environmental and consumer health
- physical fitness.
Each health lesson is designed to be as interactive and hands-on as possible. Students in grades 2-5 actually use remote response systems during health to answer questions about the topic for that month while simultaneously participating in physical activity. Students do bicep curls with t-bands, crunches on exerballs, and stretches on stretch mats, all while answering questions related to important health concepts. This allows students to develop both physically and cognitively and provides the instructor with key assessment information to help tailor future instruction to meet student needs.
Nutrition is an integral part of ensuring the physical well-being of our students and their optimal state of learning. Students learn about proper nutritional practices during health classes, and are encouraged to practice them both at school and with their families at home. Thanks to the Texas Methodist Foundation, the school built 20 raised garden beds on the east side of the building and each season, students plant fruits, vegetables, herbs and flowers and tend to them throughout the school year. The garden is an ideal setting for hands-on lessons in nutrition as well as other subjects. Students harvest their personally grown crops at the end of the school year and make healthy recipes for the rest of the school to try.
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