Greg Michener: Publications and Policy Success

A program led by Greg Michener, the Public Transparency Program, successfully induced the Brazilian government to adopt a provision allowing freedom of information requestors to conceal their identity, diminishing the threat of discrimination, intimidation, or retribution – Law 13.460, article 10, paragraph 7.

The program will be hosting the Global Conference on Transparency Research a the FGV EBAPE-School of Law in June 2019.

Recent publications by Michener include:

James Lutz: Recent Publications

Palgrave published James Lutz’s Globalization and the Economic Consequences of Terrorism.

Recent articles include:

“The Spread of Authoritarian Regimes in Interwar Europe” (Politics, Religion, & Ideology)

Abstract: A number of studies have found that a variety of political phenomena, including democracy, can spread through a diffusion process at the international level. It is also possible that non-democratic phenomena can follow a similar pattern. The spread of a number of different types of authoritarian regimes in Europe between the First World War and the Second World War provided a classic case to determine whether there were such patterns. In fact, the creation of authoritarian political systems followed a diffusion pattern in some periods under some circumstances. Diffusion was more likely to occur in the 1930s instead of the 1920s. There were also indications that those countries that were at lower levels of economic development were a factor that led to the establishment of authoritarian political systems in many years. The evidence for levels of economic development was not present for all time periods, indicating that the spread of authoritarian regimes was a complex process.

“Risk Sensitivity and the Sikh Uprising in the Punjab” (India Quarterly)

Abstract: Risk sensitivity combined with prospect theory and framing concepts can be quite useful in explaining which individuals and groups can become radicalised and more likely to resort to terrorism to achieve their political and economic objectives. Such a radicalisation can occur with groups willing to use violence for major gains and for groups seeking to prevent significant losses of status or wealth. The Sikh uprising in the Punjab in the latter part of the twentieth century is an example of terrorism based not on poverty but as part of an effort to preserve or regain a relatively advantageous position. The Sikhs were in a somewhat advantageous situation in India but faced increasing challenges to their economic, political and social position in the Punjab and in India in general. The counterterrorism policies of the government contributed to the perception of threat that further radicalised the Sikh community.

“The Ambiguous Effect of Population Size on the Prevalence of Terrorism” (Perspectives on Terrorism)

Abstract: Absolute population size has been proposed as one factor that encourages terrorism since large states have more difficulty maintaining security. More populous states suffer from more terrorism because they have more people, but the relationship disappears when per capita measures of terrorism are used. There are some indications that smaller states are more secure, but the evidence is not consistently present.

 

 

Kody Cooper and Justin Dyer: Natural-Rights Republicanism

Kody Cooper and Justin Dyer published “Thomas Jefferson, Nature’s God, and the Theological Foundations of Natural-Rights Republicanism” in Politics and Religion.

Abstract: While the role of theology in Jefferson’s political thought and its
implications for how we should understand the role of “Nature’s God” in
grounding natural-rights republicanism are topics of ongoing scholarly interest,
scholars have missed important continuities between Jefferson’s natural-law
theory and that of classical, theistic natural-law. Many scholars who have
considered Jefferson in this light have emphasized Jefferson’s discontinuity
and even subversion of that tradition. In critical dialogue with this vein of
scholarship, we argue that Jefferson espouses a creational metaphysics and a
natural-law theory of morality that has surprising continuities with classical
natural-law. We seek to shed new light on Jefferson’s theory of the moral
sense and his the earth belongs to the living principle, which we contend
encapsulates his theistic understanding of equality and property.

Justin Dyer: PS and American Political Thought

Justin Dyer published “Political Science and American Political Thought,” in PS: Political Science and Politics.

Abstract: Written as a short personal reflection, this article explores the development of
political science as an organized professional discipline in the United States. At its inception, political science in the United States was principally concerned with political thought and constitutionalism, and it was taught with the public-spirited purpose of educating for citizenship in a constitutional democracy. Twentieth-century methodological trends at one time threatened to remove political thought and constitutionalism from the curriculum of political science, but recent disciplinary trends suggest that American political thought does have a place in twenty-first-century political science.

Trey Thomas: Recent Publications

Trey Thomas’s article, “How Many Lobbyists Are in Washington?: Shadow Lobbying and the Gray Market for Policy Advocacy,” was published in Interest Groups & Advocacy, and in an edited special issue of Cognitive Systems Research, he published “The Cognitive Underpinnings of Policy Process Studies: Introduction to a Special Issue of Cognitive Systems Research” and “Modeling Contagion in Policy Systems.”

Roy Germano: Outsourcing Welfare

Roy Germano’s book, Outsourcing Welfare: How the Money Immigrants Send Home Contributes to Stability in Developing Countries, will be published by Oxford University Press this winter. Germano also has articles recently published or forthcoming in Migration Studies, Research & Politics, The NYU Law Review, and the William and Mary Bill of Rights Journal.

Ernest McGowen: African Americans In White Suburbia (as well as article with Brian Arbour)

Ernest McGowen has published his first book, African Americans in White Suburbia: Social Networks and Political Behavior (Lawrence, Kansas University Press).

Also published, with fellow alum Brian Arbour: “Let Me Tell You a Bit About Myself: Biographical Appeals in Congressional General Election Advertising.” Politics and Policy 45(2): 224-252.

David Crow and Clarisa Perez-Armendariz: Talk Without Borders

David Crow and Clarisa Perez-Armendariz and David Crow: “Talk Without Borders: Why Political Discussion Makes Latin Americans With Relatives Abroad More Critical of Their Democracies” (Comparative Political Studies: https://doi.org/10.1177/0010414017710253)

Abstract: Mulling over politics with others can change citizens’ political beliefs and choices. Is the effect of interpersonal political discussion different when one of the interlocutors has a family member living abroad—that is, is a “transnational household member” (THM)? Using data from 20 Latin American countries in the 2006-2008 AmericasBarometer, we show that talking about politics makes THMs less satisfied with their democracies and less proud of their political systems than non-THMs. When THMs engage in cross-border political discussions with relatives abroad, they gain new information and perspectives that cast their own democracy in a different light. Even absent cross-border communication, though, political discussion with peers at home can make THMs more critical by emphasizing their government’s transnational governance obligations—and highlighting failures to live up to these heightened expectations. Our study thus adds to a growing body of research on emigration’s impact on sending country politics.

Socrates and Alcibiades: New Book by Ariel Helfer

Ariel Helfer’s first book, Socrates and Alcibiades: Plato’s Drama of Political Ambition and Philosophy, is set for release by University of Pennsylvania Press.

Political Ambition and Socratic Philosophy provides a complete interpretation of Plato’s three major presentations of the infamous Athenian general, in the Alcibiades, the Second Alcibiades, and the Symposium.  This monograph takes a novel approach to the Platonic triptych, treating it for the first time as a coherent narrative, spanning nearly two decades, of the relationship between Socrates and his most notorious pupil, and revealing a dynamic Platonic portrait of Alcibiades’ changing disposition toward democracy, law, virtue, and piety.  In his detailed interpretive account of this portrait, Helfer follows Alcibiades’ dramatic transformation from a surprisingly naïve Athenian youth, through a dark phase of pessimism and flirtation with tyranny, to the charismatic, larger-than-life personality known from ancient history and biography, all the while tracing the connection between these extraordinary developments and Alcibiades’ exposure to Socratic philosophy. Helfer argues that Plato does not simply deny the allegation that Alcibiades was corrupted by his Socratic education, but rather weaves together a nuanced account through his dialogues from which we can glean insight into important questions in political theory: How is the civic-spirited side of political ambition related to its self-serving or glory-seeking dimensions?  How can education be expected to strengthen or weaken the devotion to one’s fellow citizens characteristic of noble ambition?  And what does Socratic philosophy reveal about the place of political hopes in a spiritually and intellectually healthy human life?  The book thus aims to recover a valuable classical teaching on the nature and corruptibility of political ambition, illuminating from an unfamiliar and thought-provoking perspective our own political situation as citizens of liberal democracy and heirs to its tradition of distrust of the politically ambitious.  Moreover, it advances the study of Platonic philosophy by explaining the importance of Alcibiades’ education for Socrates’ own enigmatic philosophic project.

Sugiyama and Wampler: Democracy at Work

Natasha Borges Sugiyama and Brian Wampler (with Michael Touchton) have published “Democracy at Work: Moving Beyond Elections to Improve Well-Being” in American Political Science Review.

Abstract: How does democracy work to improve well-being? In this article, we disentangle the component parts of democratic practice—elections, civic participation, expansion of social provisioning, local administrative capacity—to identify their relationship with well-being. We draw from the citizenship debates to argue that democratic practices allow citizens to gain access to a wide range of rights, which then serve as the foundation for improving social well-being. Our analysis of an original dataset covering over 5,550 Brazilian municipalities from 2006 to 2013 demonstrates that competitive elections alone do not explain variation in infant mortality rates, one outcome associated with well-being. We move beyond elections to show how participatory institutions, social programs, and local state capacity can interact to buttress one another and reduce infant mortality rates. It is important to note that these relationships are independent of local economic growth, which also influences infant mortality. The result of our thorough analysis offers a new understanding of how different aspects of democracy work together to improve a key feature of human development.

Dargent and Munoz: Recent Publications

Eduardo Dargent and Paula Munoz have a couple of recent, co-authored publications:

“Perú: A Close Win for Continuity,” Journal of Democracy, 27:4.

“Patronage, Subnational Linkages and Party-Building: The Cases of Colombia and Peru”. In: Steven Levitsky et al. (Eds.), Challenges of Party-Building in Latin America, Cambridge University Press.

Paula Munoz also published (with Y. Guibert) “Perú: El fin del optimismo”, Revista de Ciencia Política, 36:1.

Jasmine Farrier: Judicial Restraint and the New War Powers

Jasmine Farrier’s “Judicial Restraint and the New War Powers,” won the 2016 Founders’ Award from APSA’s President’s & Executive Politics Section for best paper at the 2015 conference and was published in Presidential Studies Quarterly.

Abstract: Over the past four decades, members of Congress have filed 10 lawsuits challenging military actions abroad that were ordered or sustained by presidents without prior legislative consent. In dismissing these cases, federal courts told the plaintiffs to use their legislative tools to show disapproval of the actions already in progress. Under this logic, the House and Senate must have a veto-proof supermajority to end an existing military engagement before a case can be heard on the merits. These precedents contrast with previous war powers cases initiated by private litigants, which focused on prior simple majority legislative authority for presidential action.

Oya Dursun-Ozkanca: Recent Publications

Oya Dursun-Ozkanca has the following recent publications:

“Pitfalls of Security Sector Reform in Costa Rica: Insights into Security Sector Reform in Non-Military Countries”, Peacebuilding (forthcoming).

“The Assembly-Line Model of Peacebuilding: Towards a Theory of International Collaboration in Multidimensional Peacebuilding Operations,” International Journal of Peace Studies (2016).

“Turkey and the European Union: Strategic Partners or Competitors in the Western Balkans?” Journal of Regional Security (2016).

Matthew Rhodes-Purdy: Regime Support in Latin America

Matthew Rhodes-Purdy’s “Beyond the Balance Sheet: Performance, Participation, and Regime Support in Latin America,” appeared in the January 2017 issue of Comparative Politics.

Abstract: This article examines incongruities between policy performance and regime support in Chile and Venezuela. Democratic theory and political psychology suggest that intrinsic characteristics of regime procedures, especially the extent to which those procedures provide citizens with a meaningful political role, can influence support independently of policy outcomes. I find that Chile’s elitist democracy has created an enervated populace, leading to anemic support. Conversely, Venezuela’s provisions for direct participatory opportunities help to legitimate the Bolivarian regime, in spite of its authoritarian tendencies, by encouraging a sense of control and efficacy among its citizens.

Baohui Zhang: Two Books

Baohui Zhang has recently published two books, China’s Assertive Nuclear Posture: State Security in An Anarchic International Order (Routledge) and Revolutions As Organizational Change: The Communist Party and Peasant Communities in Southern China (Hong Kong University Press).

Oya Dursun-Ozkanca: New Article

Oya Dursun-Ozkanca has published an article in Foreign Policy Analysis.

Title: Turkish Soft Balancing Against the EU? An Analysis of the Prospects for Improved Transatlantic Security Relations

Abstract: Turkey is increasingly criticized for obstructing communication and coordination between the European Union (EU) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Using soft balancing theory and drawing on fieldwork and semistructured elite interviews conducted in Turkey, this article provides an in-depth analysis of Turkey’s foreign policy that leads to an impasse in NATO–EU coordination. It identifies three main reasons behind the Turkish foreign policy on the topic: (1) Turkey’s resentment for its exclusion from European security developments, (2) the uncertainties revolving around Turkey’s EU membership prospects and the subsequent lack of trust toward the EU, and (3) the unresolved Cyprus problem. This article concludes that the provision of a credible roadmap for Turkey’s EU membership and the resolution of the Cyprus conflict are central for breaking the NATO–EU security impasse, both of which seem unlikely in the short to medium run.

Ayesha Ray: Publications

Ayesha Ray’s book chapter, “Civil-Military Relations in India: An Overview,” was published recently in the Routledge Handbook of Defense Policy. Her monograph, “Culture, Context, and Capability: American and Indian Counterinsurgency Approaches,” is forthcoming from the Institute of Defense Studies and Analyses.

Danny Hayes: Women on the Run

Danny Hayes (with Jennifer Lawless) has published Women on the Run: Gender, Media, and Political Campaigns in a Polarized Era.

You can watch Hayes discuss the book here: https://www.newamerica.org/political-reform/events/women-run/

From Cambridge:

Claims of bias against female candidates abound in American politics. From superficial media coverage to gender stereotypes held by voters, the conventional wisdom is that women routinely encounter a formidable series of obstacles that complicate their path to elective office. Women on the Run challenges that prevailing view and argues that the declining novelty of women in politics, coupled with the polarization of the Republican and Democratic parties, has left little space for the sex of a candidate to influence modern campaigns. The book includes in-depth analyses of the 2010 and 2014 congressional elections, which reveal that male and female House candidates communicate similar messages on the campaign trail, receive similar coverage in the local press, and garner similar evaluations from voters in their districts. When they run for office, male and female candidates not only perform equally well on Election Day – they also face a very similar electoral landscape.

Matt Buehler: Political Research Quarterly Article

Matt Buehler’s article is forthcoming in Political Research Quarterly.

Title: Do You Have ‘Connections’ at the Courthouse? An Original Survey on Informal Influence and Judicial Rulings in Morocco

Abstract: Under what conditions to citizens of developing countries view judges as neutral and fair or biased and arbitrary? This study addresses this topic through an original, nationally representative survey from the Middle East and North Africa. Conducted in Morocco, the survey is the first of its kind to gauge attitudes about how a citizen’s informal influence facilitates getting favorable rulings from judges.

Austin Hart: Economic Voting

Austin Hart’s book, Economic Voting: A Campaign-Centered Theory, is forthcoming from Cambridge.

From Cambridge:

The conventional wisdom of economic voting theory argues that a nation’s economic performance drives electoral outcomes. Therefore, voters will hold an administration accountable for its economic stewardship. Austin Hart challenges the simplicity of this notion, drawing on cognitive-psychological research on priming to demonstrate that the intensity of voters’ exposure to economic campaign messages systematically conditions the strength of the economic vote. However, this study goes further than simply saying ‘campaigns matter’. Here, we learn that candidates who control the campaign narrative can capitalize on favorable economic conditions or – contrary to the predictions of conventional theory – overcome unfavorable conditions. Although the aim is not to dismiss the importance of structural variables in the study of elections, Hart shows that the choices candidates make about what to say and how often shape election outcomes in ways that cannot be explained by contextual or institutional forces alone.

State Capacity, Bureaucratic Politicization, and Corruption in the Brazilian State

Katherine Bersch, with Sergio Praca and Matthew M. Taylor, has published the following article in Governance.

Title: State Capacity, Bureaucratic Politicization, and Corruption in the Brazilian State

Abstract: Responding to recent articles in Governance highlighting the need for improved measurement of bureaucratic characteristics, this article describes efforts to map Brazil’s federal agencies on three dimensions—capacity, autonomy, and partisan dominance—derived from data on more than 326,000 civil servants. The article provides a “proof of concept” about the utility of agency-level measures of these variables, demonstrating how they relate to an output common to all agencies: corruption. The article provides a first step in the direction of building a comparative research program that offers objective evaluation of bureaucracies within nation-states, with the intent of better disentangling their impact on governance outcomes.