Publications

BOOKS (AUTHORED)

The Limits of Humanitarian Intervention: Genocide in Rwanda (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2001).

BOOKS (EDITED)

Constitutions and Conflict Management in Africa: Preventing Civil War through Institutional Design (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015).

Nuclear Terrorism and Global Security: The Challenge of Phasing out Highly Enriched Uranium (New York: Routledge, 2013).

Gambling on Humanitarian Intervention: Moral Hazard, Rebellion and Civil War (New York: Routledge, 2006), co-edited with Timothy W. Crawford.

ARTICLES IN REFEREED JOURNALS

“Constitutional Design and Conflict Management in Africa,” Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy 19, 3 (October 2013): 393–402.

“A Model Humanitarian Intervention? Reassessing NATO’s Libya Campaign,” International Security 38, 1 (Summer 2013): 105-136.

“R2P: Catchy Name for a Fading Norm,” Ethnopolitics, 10, 1 (March 2011): 127–130.

“Mass Atrocity Response Operations: Doctrine in Search of Strategy,” Genocide Studies and Prevention 6, 1 (April 2011): 59–65.

“Darfur: Strategic Victimhood Strikes Again?” Genocide Studies and Prevention 4,3 (December 2009), pp. 281–303.

“Wishful Thinking Will Not Stop Genocide: Suggestions for a More Realistic Strategy,” Genocide Studies and Prevention 4,2 (August 2009), pp. 191–199.

“Rethinking the Responsibility to Protect,” Whitehead Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations 10,1 (Winter/Spring 2009), pp. 33-43.

“Mitigating the Moral Hazard of Humanitarian Intervention: Lessons from Economics,” Global Governance 14,2 (April-June 2008), pp. 219-240.

“The Moral Hazard of Humanitarian Intervention: Lessons from the Balkans,” International Studies Quarterly 52,1 (March 2008), pp. 49-80.

“Bomb-Grade Bazaar,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 62, No. 2 (March/April 2006), cover story, pp. 44-50.

“Suicidal Rebellions and the Moral Hazard of Humanitarian Intervention,” Ethnopolitics, Vol. 4, No. 2 (June 2005), pp. 149-73.

“Introduction: Debating the Hazards of Intervention,” Ethnopolitics, Vol. 4, No. 2 (June 2005), pp. 143–47, co-authored with Timothy W. Crawford.

“Is Partition Really the Only Hope?  Reconciling Contradictory Findings About Ethnic Civil Wars,” Security Studies Vol. 13, No. 4 (Summer 2004), pp. 314-349.

“Provoking Genocide: A Revised History of the Rwandan Patriotic Front,” Journal of Genocide Research, Vol. 6, No. 1 (March 2004), pp. 61-84.

“The Stinger Missile and U.S. Intervention in Afghanistan,” Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 114, No. 2 (Summer 1999), pp. 219-63.

“The Other Lesson of Rwanda: Mediators Sometimes Do More Damage Than Good,” SAIS Review, Vol. XVI, No. 1 (Winter-Spring 1996), pp. 221-240.

OTHER JOURNAL ARTICLES

“Obama’s Libya Debacle: How a Well-Meaning Intervention Ended in Failure,” Foreign Affairs 94,2 (March/April 2015): 66-77.

“Averting the Third Kosovo War,” The American Interest, Vol. 3, No. 3 (Jan-Feb 2008), pp. 52-58.

“Humanitarian Hazard: Revisiting Doctrines of Intervention,” Harvard International Review, Vol. 26, No. 1 (Spring 2004), pp. 64-68.

“Rwanda in Retrospect,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 79, No. 1 (January/February 2000), pp. 94-118.

“How Media Missed Rwandan Genocide,” IPI Report, Vol. 6, No. 1 (First Quarter 2000), pp. 11-13.

BOOK CHAPTERS

“Nuclear Nonproliferation via Coercion and Consensus: The Success and Limits of the RERTR Program (1978–2004),” in International Cooperation on WMD Nonproliferation, ed. Jeffrey W. Knopf (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2016): 46-71.

“Humanitarian Intervention,” in Human Rights: Politics and Practice, 3rd edition, ed. Michael Goodhart (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016, forthcoming).

“Liberia: How Diplomacy Helped End a 13-Year Civil War,” in Negotiating in Times of Conflict, eds. Gilead Sher and Anat Kurz (Tel Aviv: Institute for National Security Studies, 2015): 155-171.

“Designing Constitutions to Reduce Domestic Conflict,” in Constitutions and Conflict Management in Africa: Preventing Civil War through Institutional Design, ed. Alan J. Kuperman (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015): 1-26.

“Rethinking Constitutional Reform for Democracy and Stability,” in Constitutions and Conflict Management in Africa: Preventing Civil War through Institutional Design, ed. Alan J. Kuperman (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015): 226-227.

“Iran Nuclear Deal Unlikely to Halt Regional Proliferation,” in Iran-The Day After Simulation: Geo Political Implications, eds. Shaul Shay and Alex Mintz (Herzliya, Israel: Institute for Policy and Strategy, 2014).

“Can the IAEA Safeguard Fuel-Cycle Facilities? The Historical Record,” in Nuclear Weapons Materials Gone Missing: What Does History Teach? ed. Henry Sokolski (Arlington, VA: Nonproliferation Policy Education Center, 2014), co-authored with David Sokolow and Edwin S. Lyman.

“The Rwandan Genocide and the Limits of Humanitarian Intervention,” in Genocide: A Reader, ed. Jens Meierhenrich (Oxford University Press, 2014).

“Moral Hazard of Humanitarian Intervention: Lessons from the Balkans,” in Humanitarian Intervention – Volume One: The Politics of Humanitarian Intervention, ed. James Pattison (SAGE Publications, 2013).

“NATO’s Intervention in Libya: A Humanitarian Success?” in Libya, the Responsibility to Protect and the Future of Humanitarian Intervention, eds. Aidan Hehir and Robert Murray (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013).

“Humanitarian Intervention,” in Human Rights: Politics and Practice, 2nd edition, ed. Michael Goodhart (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013): 290-309.

“Rethinking the Responsibility to Protect,” in Helen Purkitt, ed., Annual Editions: World Politics 11/12 (McGraw-Hill/Dushkin, 2011), pp. 172-177.

“Humanitarian Intervention” in Robert J. Art and Robert Jervis, eds., International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues, 10th Edition (Longman, 2010): 412-423.

“Humanitarian Intervention,” in Michael Goodhart, ed., Human Rights: Politics and Practice (Oxford University Press, 2009), pp. 334-353.

“A Small Intervention: Lessons from Liberia 2003,” in Jim Wirtz and Jeff Larsen, eds., Naval Peacekeeping and Humanitarian Operations: Stability from the Sea (Abingdon: Routledge, 2009), pp. 153-169.

“Ripeness Revisited: The Perils of Muscular Mediation,” in Terrence Lyons and Gilbert Khadiagala, eds., Conflict Management and Africa: Negotiation, Mediation, and Politics (Abingdon: Routledge, 2008), pp. 9-21.

“Suicidal Rebellions and the Moral Hazard of Humanitarian Intervention,” in Adam Jones, ed., Prevention, Intervention, and Accountability, vol. 4 in Adam Jones, ed., Genocide, 4 vols. (London: Sage Publications, 2008).

“Is Partition Really the Only Hope?  Reconciling Contradictory Findings About Ethnic Civil Wars,” in Roy Licklider and Mia Bloom, eds., Living Together After Ethnic Killing:  Exploring the Chaim Kaufmann Argument (New York: Routledge, 2007), pp. 174-209.

“Power-Sharing or Partition? History’s Lessons for Keeping the Peace in Bosnia,” in Michael Innes, ed., Bosnian Security After Dayton: New Perspectives (New York: Routledge, 2006), pp. 23-50.

“Suicidal Rebellions and the Moral Hazard of Humanitarian Intervention,” in Timothy W. Crawford and Alan J. Kuperman, eds., Gambling on Humanitarian Intervention: Moral Hazard, Rebellion and Civil War (New York: Routledge, 2006), pp. 1-25.

“Introduction: Debating the Hazards of Intervention,” in Timothy W. Crawford and Alan J. Kuperman, eds., Gambling on Humanitarian Intervention: Moral Hazard, Rebellion and Civil War (New York: Routledge, 2006), co-authored with Timothy W. Crawford, pp. vii-xi.

“How Media Missed Rwandan Genocide,” in Allan Thompson, ed., The Media and the Rwanda Genocide (London: Pluto Press, 2006), pp. 256-60.

“Humanitarian Hazard: Revisiting Doctrines of Intervention,” in George Shambaugh and Andrew Bennett, eds., Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in American Foreign Policy, Third Edition (New York: McGraw-Hill/Dushkin, 2005), pp. 342-48.  (Also in Fourth and Fifth Edition.)

“Provoking Genocide: A Revised History of the Rwandan Patriotic Front,” in Colin Tatz, et al., ed., Genocide Perspectives, Volume III (Blackheath, Australia: Brandl and Schlesinger, 2006), pp. 173-195.

“Transnational Causes of Genocide: Or How the West Inadvertently Exacerbates Ethnic Conflict,” in Raju G. C. Thomas, ed., Yugoslavia Unraveled: Sovereignty, Self-Determination, Intervention (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2003), pp. 55-85.

“Civilian Highly Enriched Uranium and the Fissile Material Convention,” in Paul L. Leventhal, ed., Nuclear Power & the Spread of Nuclear Weapons (Dulles, VA: Brassey’s Inc., 2002), pp. 249-260.

“Rwanda in Retrospect,” in James F. Hoge, Jr. and Gideon Rose, eds., American Foreign Policy: Cases and Choices (New York: Foreign Affairs Books, 2003), pp. 76-100.

“The Stinger Missile and U.S. Intervention in Afghanistan,” in Demetrios James Caraley, ed., The New American Interventionism: Successes and Failures (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999), pp. 159-203.

DISSERTATION

Tragic Challenges and the Moral Hazard of Humanitarian Intervention: How and Why Ethnic Groups Provoke Genocidal Retaliation, PhD Dissertation (Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2002), 406 pages.

REVIEW ESSAYS AND BOOK REVIEWS

“The Role of France in the Rwandan Genocide; and The Failure to Prevent Genocide in Rwanda: The Role of Bystanders,” review essay, Journal of Genocide Research, Vol. 11, No. 4 (Dec 2009), pp. 536-541.

“The Responsibility to Protect: Ending Mass Atrocity Crimes Once and for All,” book review, Political Science Quarterly 124, 3 (Fall 2009), pp. 590-591.

“Why Not Kill Them All? The Logic and Prevention of Mass Political Murder,” book review, Perspectives on Politics, Vol. 7, No. 1 (March 2009), pp. 220-221.

“Darfur: A Short History of a Long War; and A Long Day’s Dying: Critical Moments in the Darfur Genocide,” review essay, Journal of Genocide Research, Vol. 10, No. 2 (June 2008), pp. 309-314.

“Be Not Afraid, For You Have Sons in America: How a Brooklyn Roofer Helped Lure the U.S. into the Kosovo War,” book review, Journal of Genocide Research, Vol. 8, No. 1 (March 2006), pp. 101-103.

“Peacemaking in Rwanda: The Dynamics of Failure,” book review, Nationalism & Ethnic Politics, Vol. 12, No. 2 (Summer 2006), pp. 296-99.

“Expanding Global Military Capacity for Humanitarian Intervention,” book review, Contemporary Security Policy, Vol. 24, No. 2 (August 2003), pp. 184-86.

“The New Killing Fields: Massacre and the Politics of Intervention,” book review, International Affairs, Vol. 79, No. 2 (March 2003).

“Suffering,” review essay of A Bed for the Night: Humanitarianism in Crisis, The National Interest, No. 71 (March 2003).

“Kosovo: How Myths and Truths Started a War; and The Battle of Kosovo,” review essay, Nationalism & Ethnic Politics, Vol. 6, No. 3 (Autumn 2000), pp. 117-119.

OTHER PUBLISHED WORK

“Why Isn’t There More Scholarly Evaluation of U.S. Wars?” H-Diplo | ISSF Forum, No. 13, March 4, 2016, pp. 15-17.

“Fantastical thinking about the Iran deal,” Washington Post, letters, August 29, 2015.

“Misleading Spin on Centrifuges,” Iran Matters, Harvard University’s Belfer Center, July 6, 2015.

“Who Lost Libya?” Foreign Affairs 94,3 (May/June 2015): 158-159.

“Premature Action in Iraq Could Backfire,” Room for Debate, New York Times online, August 7, 2014.

“Can the IAEA Safeguard Fuel-Cycle Facilities?” Working Paper # 2, Nuclear Proliferation Prevention Project (NPPP), University of Texas at Austin, March 18, 2014, co-authored by David Sokolow and Edwin S. Lyman.

“Falsely labeled,” Star-Telegram, letters, October 4, 2013.

“Lessons from Libya: How Not to Intervene,” Policy Brief, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, September 2013.

“An exaggerated death toll,” Washington Post, letters, August 5, 2013, p. A12.

“Protecting U.S. Nuclear Facilities from Terrorist Attack: Re-assessing the Current ‘Design Basis Threat’ Approach,” Working Paper # 1, Nuclear Proliferation Prevention Project (NPPP), University of Texas at Austin, August 15, 2013, co-authored with Lara Kirkham.

“Constitutional Reform & Violent Conflict: Lessons from Africa, for Africa,” CCAPS Research Brief No. 15 (Austin: Robert S. Strauss Center for International Security and Law, 2013).

“Secession Redux,” Rapporteur’s Summary, 17 April 2013.

“The big question in global affairs,” KNOW, University of Texas at Austin, October 13, 2011.

“Can Political Institutions Avert Violence from Climate Change?” CCAPS Research Brief No. 1 (Austin: Robert S. Strauss Center for International Security and Law, 2011).

“Stop holding onto dangerous nuclear material,” The Hill, Congress Blog, September 27, 2010, co-authored with Miles A. Pomper.

“Fueling an Iranian bomb?” Washington Post, letters, October 20, 2009.

“No to a Darfur No-Fly Zone,” Washington Post, letters, March 10, 2009, p. A12.

“Better Late Than Never,” The American Interest Online, November 17, 2008.

“Crimes That Need No Exaggeration,” Washington Post, letters, July 29, 2008, p. A16.

“Ocampo and Bashir: The Milosevic Precedent,” Making Sense of Darfur, June 23, 2008.

“Averting the Third Kosovo War,” USI Digest (India), Vol. X, No. 19 (Sep 2007 – Feb 2008).

“Should the United States Recognize Kosovo?”, online debate, sponsored by Council on Foreign Relations, December 17-28, 2007.

“America’s Role in Somalia’s Problems,” Washington Post, letters, December 3, 2007, p. A16.

“Kako izbjeći novo krvoproliće,” Novi Reporter (Banja Luka, Bosnia), No. 235 (September 12, 2007), pp. 28-29.

“Genocide: The Cases of Rwanda and Sudan,” Footnotes (the newsletter of the Marvin Wachman Fund for International Education, Foreign Policy Research Institute), Vol. 12, No.14 (May 2007).

“Targeting Iran’s Nuclear Weapons,” Washington Post, letters, February 12, 2007, p. A16.

“Relative Deprivation,” entry in William A. Darity, ed., International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2nd edition (New York: Macmillan, forthcoming in 2007).

“Loose Nukes of the West,” in Clint Willis and Nate Hardcastle, eds., The I Hate the 21st Century Reader (Thunder’s Mouth Press, 2006), pp. 39-44.

“The Real Toll of War,” Washington Post, letters, October 25, 2005.

“Through the Prism of Left and Right,” New York Times, letters, October 12, 2005.  Reprinted in Andrea A. Lunsford, et al., eds., Everything’s an Argument with Readings, Fourth Edition (New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2006).

“Reply to Melvern review of The Limits of Humanitarian Intervention,” H-Genocide, May 30, 2003.

“Dangerous Nuclear Trade,” Washington Post, letters, May 23, 2003.

“Wishful Thinking on Rwanda,” Foreign Affairs, letters, Vol. 81, No. 6 (November/December 2002).

“Riskier to Fight Iraq,” New York Times, letters, April 13, 2002.

“No to Nation-Building,” New York Times, letters, February 11, 2002.

“Stinging Rebukes,” Foreign Affairs, letters, Vol. 81, No. 1 (January/February 2002).

“Response to ‘Bystanders to Genocide,’” Atlantic Monthly, letters, December 2001.

“What if Terror Went Nuclear?” New York Times, letters, November 25, 2001.

“Rejoinder,” Journal of Humanitarian Assistance, November 12, 2001.

“The Nuke Factor,” Washington Post, letters, November 7, 2001.

“Kuperman Replies,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 79, No. 3 (May/June 2000).

“Don’t Court Disaster in Iraq,” Wall Street Journal, letters, November 18, 1999.

“NATO’s Accounting,” Washington Post, letters, August 25, 1999.

“Albright Painted Milosevic Into a Corner,” Wall Street Journal, letters, July 14, 1999.

“Botched Diplomacy Led to War [in Kosovo],” Wall Street Journal, letters, June 17, 1999.

“Stick to Your Guns,” Foreign Affairs, letters, Vol. 78, No. 3 (May/June 1999).

“NATO Move May Widen War [in Kosovo],” USA Today, letters, October 9-11, 1998.

“In Balkans, Time to Intervene?” New York Times, letters, October, 5, 1998.