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Source: Macaulay Honors College

Riya Sreenivasan and Victor Liaw

Mindfulness meditation is a mental exercise intended to improve clarity and calm that emphasizes being present in the moment, self-aware, and minimally reactive to one’s surroundings. The concept of mindfulness meditation is that concentrating on bodily sensations can reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression such as racing thoughts and feelings of unease. It can be as simple as focusing on a specific object or specific types of breathing.

Jon Kabat-Zinn was the first to develop mindfulness based stress reduction therapy (MBSR) based on  Buddhist mindfulness practice, which focuses on the well-being of bodily state to allow for the apart from thoughts and emotions. His 10-week program at the University of Massachusetts invited people with persistent pain to attend meditation classes and practice at home. At the end of the study, a majority of the 51 patients reported lowered pain severity and decreased symptoms of depression, tension, anxiety, and fatigue. MBSR therapy was further popularized by writers and advocates who described success stories and cited similar types of data, and a recent review of fifteen studies of MBSR in the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry found that most of them addressed symptoms of depression or anxiety in individuals with a major medical condition such as persistent pain.

Despite these findings,  MBSR studies should be treated with some skepticism because many factors can account for symptom improvement over time. Symptoms can get better on their own with time, which is hard to account for in a long study period. It’s also possible that people started the study at a time of particularly high distress, but returned to a more average level of distress over time. Known as regression to the mean, these types of variations occur independently of any intervention but can appear to be related. Further, in what is known as placebo effect, simply believing that an intervention will work can lead to symptom improvement. Finally, MBSR study participants may be subject to the Hawthorne effect, meaning that the act of being observed by researchers may affect the participants and cause them to feel more obliged to show signs of improvement. Although many of these concerns can be addressed using a comparison group, most of these studies did not use one.

Understanding both the merits of MBSR therapy as well as the concerns from their study methodology will become important as meditation centers become increasingly common in Austin and other affluent, bustling cities. A further concern for this practice is that it risks commoditizing common methods of self care.  Marketing meditation as a commodity can not only make the practice appear elitist and unaffordable but can also make it appear difficult–a practice that requires another’s expertise, and for which one should pay–when in fact, it is straightforward and can be done with little guidance.

Can one learn to meditate using free advice or apps? What is the value of a paid app, book, coach, or setting? The answer to these questions may be specific to an individual’s values, personality, and experience.  Keep in mind that meditation is very simple and can benefit all of us.


Source: The Food Rush

Kavya Rajesh

Vitamin sales approach $28 billion annually and nearly half of all Americans take some form of multivitamin. Multivitamins are marketed based on claims they boost health and wellness in specific ways, such as prolonging life. Some believe that multivitamins can improve health and make up for poor eating habits. Multivitamins are not regulated by the FDA and their nutrient composition varies by brand and product.  

While some people (e.g. aging adults at risk for osteoporosis and pregnant woman) may benefit from vitamins, most people living in developed nations eating a balanced diet get little to no benefit from daily multivitamins. Large quantities of vitamins can actually be harmful. High daily intake (known as a megadose) of Vitamin A can increase risk of birth defects and osteoporosis. High intake of Vitamin C pills can increase risk of kidney stones.

Nutrition experts say money might be better spent on nutrient-packed foods like fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products. These whole foods have other health benefits such as fiber and likely have benefits that remain unmeasured. Current studies show that multivitamins do not reduce risk for heart disease, cancer, or mental decline.  


Works Cited

“The Benefits of Vitamin Supplements.” Harvard Health, Harvard Health Publishing,

Cohut, Maria. “Can a Vitamin Combo Prolong Your Life?” Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 18 Oct. 2018,

“Is There Really Any Benefit to Multivitamins?” Johns Hopkins Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medicine,

Tinnesand, Michael. “Are Vitamin Supplements Necessary?” American Chemical Society, American Chemical Society, Jan. 2018,

Bulletproof Coffee

Source: Living Bulletproof

Kavya Rajesh

People are claiming that coffee combined with medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) such as oil, ghee, or butter can trigger weight loss and boost cognitive function. This is based on the idea that MCT is rapidly converted into ketones, which the brain uses as source of quick energy. People claim that MCT suppresses hunger and encourages your body to reach into its fat stores for energy- thereby promoting weight loss. One company, Bulletproof, sells a proprietary blend of coffee beans, “Brain Octane Oil,” and butter made from the milk of grass-fed cows.

Bulletproof coffee is meant to be consumed first thing in the morning, presumably as a breakfast replacement. While the large amounts of fat present in the coffee might suppress your appetite for several hours, you lose out on the nutrients you could have obtained from a nutritious breakfast. Bulletproof coffee does not contain the same vitamins and minerals as a healthy breakfast with fruits, grains, and dairy or even a less healthy one with meat and eggs. By starting the morning off with bulletproof coffee, you are essentially replacing a complete meal with a mug of empty calories.  

Bulletproof coffee also has substantial amounts of saturated fat (over 40 grams). The American Heart Association recommends no more than 15 grams per day on a typical 2000 calorie diet. According to Chistopher Ochner, a nutrition expert at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Hospital says “there is a little bit of data on the use of medium-chain triglycerides for weight loss and regulating cholesterol. But the effect is very, very small.”  

Works Cited

Asprey, Dave. “Bulletproof Coffee’s Benefits: How It Supercharges Your Morning.” Bulletproof, Bulletproof, 18 July 2018,

Gayomali, Chris. “What It’s Like To Drink Bulletproof Coffee Every Morning For Two Weeks.” Fast Company, Fast Company, 8 May 2017,

Gunnars, Kris. “3 Reasons Why Bulletproof Coffee Is a Bad Idea.” Healthline, Healthline Media, 10 June 2014,

“How to Make Bulletproof Coffee… And Make Your Morning Bulletproof.” Bulletproof, Bulletproof, 18 July 2018,

McAdams, Molly. “How Much Saturated Fats Should You Have Per Day?” Healthy Eating, SF Gate, 11 June 2018,