Expansive microbial metabolic versatility and biodiversity in dynamic Guaymas Basin hydrothermal sediments
Microbes in Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California) hydrothermal sediments thrive on hydrocarbons and sulfur and experience steep, fluctuating temperature and chemical gradients. The functional capacities of communities inhabiting this dynamic habitat are largely unknown. Here, we reconstructed 551 genomes from hydrothermally influenced, and nearby cold sediments belonging to 56 phyla (40 uncultured). These genomes comprise 22 unique lineages, including five new candidate phyla. In contrast to findings from cold hydrocarbon seeps, hydrothermal-associated communities are more diverse and archaea dominate over bacteria. Genome-based metabolic inferences provide first insights into the ecological niches of these uncultured microbes, including methane cycling in new Crenarchaeota and alkane utilization in ANME-1. These communities are shaped by a high biodiversity, partitioning among nitrogen and sulfur pathways and redundancy in core carbon-processing pathways. The dynamic sediments select for distinctive microbial communities that stand out by expansive biodiversity, and open up new physiological perspectives into hydrothermal ecosystem function.