Asclepius on Cos

Caroline Dubois-Weber sent the following pictures from her trip to Cos.

“The statue of Asclepius is from the archaeological museum at the Sanctuary of Asklepios at Epidaurus. This Asclepion is famous for being the mythological birthplace of the Greek god of medicine, Asclepius.”

“The Asclepieion of Kos is one of the most famous Asclepions from antiquity. Located on the island said to be the birthplace of Hippocrates, the site of this Asclepieion contains ruins of a medical school rumored to have been founded and taught at by the acclaimed ‘father of modern medicine.’ Because of these ancient ties to the history of medicine, many physicians from around the world pay visit to the asclepion. Some Greek medical schools even host their white coat ceremonies at the site.”

Gorgon and the Eyes of Dionysus on a Red-Figure Kylix in the Blanton Museum

Name and Creator: Gorgon and the Eyes of Dionysus on a Red-Figure Kylix -Type B (Wine Cup). While the creator of this kylix is unknown to historians, it is known that it was constructed “in the manner of the Lysippides Painter.” The Lysippides Painter was a famous Athenian black-figure vasepainter whose identity is a mystery. As an artist, the Lysippides Painter was well-known to have a distinctive art style that matches this kylix. However, considering that this wine cup was made circa 430 BCE which was before the time period that the Lysippides Painter was known to be active (around 530 to 515 BC), it may be wrong to assume that the Lypippides Painter created this kylix.

Date of Creation: This piece of art was created circa 430 BCE.

Location on Campus: This red-figure kylix is featured in the Greco-Roman Art Exhibit of the Blanton Museum of Art.

Acquisition: This art piece became part of the Blanton Museum of Art on UT’s and the James R. Dougherty, Jr. Foundation. While the Huntington Fund contributed $600,000 out of the $1.5 million over the course of thirty-five years to open the original Art Building with the Archer M. Huntington Gallery in 1963, the James R. Dougherty, Jr. Foundation has worked to fund endowments and innovative projects since its establishment in 1950.

Type of Art Work: The Gorgon and the Eyes of Dionysus on a Red-Figure Kylix – Type B (Wine Cup) is a Greek-Attic red-figure vase painting on a terracotta kylix, 3 3/8 Å~ 8 7/16 in. (8.5 x 21.5 cm) overall.

Description: In this work of art, the cupped portion of the kylix that holds the at the very center. The particular female Gorgon shown here seems to be Medusa as reflected by the unique portrayal of her defining characteristic: her serpentine locks of hair. At the wide base of this wine cup, there are two large, prominent eyes, rumored to belong to Dionysus or the Gorgons, gazing intensely at the holder of the kylix. Surrounding these eyes, there are graph vines spiraling everywhere that frame the rest of the base of the kylix.

In Greek mythology, the Gorgons, which roughly translates to “the terrible ones,” were three powerful and winged sisters: Medusa (Guardian), Euryale (Wide-stepping), and Sthenno (Strength). In ancient Greek art, these winged bestial women were commonly portrayed with round heads, large staring eyes, protruding tongues, and sharp tusks resembling those of swine (Curtis). All of these characteristics can clearly be seen in this kylix. Moreover, the Gorgon that is the depicted on the kylix is adorned with snake-like coils around her head as hair, indicating a serpent motif, lending us to identify her as Medusa as in most well-known myths. However, it is important to consider that this does not necessarily imply that the artist believed Gorgons had snake-hair. The serpent element in the sculpture likely signifies the Gorgons’ status as chthonic deities, where snakes or dragons often represent the divine and uncivilized nature of sacred places in Greek mythology (Curtis).

Unlike her sisters, Medusa was describes as being the only mortal Gorgon (Hesiod’s Theogony 276-278). Interestingly, she was also described as a beautiful woman by late classical poets who believed she was turned into a monster by Athena as punishment for having sexual relations with Poseidon in her shrine (Atsma – Gorgones). In contrast, earlier Greek writers and artists portray her as a monster who was born into a family of monsters. The portrayal of the latter can be seen in this red-figure kylix.

Another important figure in Greek mythology that can be seen on this ancient wine cup is Dionysus. As the Olympian god of wine, vegetation, pleasure, festivity, madness, theater, and wild frenzy, Dionysus was depicted as either a young or old man who was commonly seen with a thyrsos (a pine-cone tipped staff), a drinking cup and a crown of ivy in Greek paintings and vases (Atsma – Dionysus). Moreover, he was also shown to be flocked with Satyrs and Maenads and surrounded by grapevines. While most of these characteristics are not reflected in this kylix, there are several allusions to Dionysus’s sphere of influence, wine, that tie into the meaning of the artwork.

There are numerous interpretations that can be made regarding the intended symbolic meaning of this work of art. Being placed strategically on the wine cup, the menacing face of the Gorgon, Medusa, is intended to turn away evil and remind the drinker of the dangers of drinking wine and alcohol in excess, consequently intimidating the drinker to stay safe from harm. Moreover, the two eyes on the exterior of the base turn the kylix into a mask when the cup is held up as the drinker takes a sip of wine from

These eyes can either be interpreted as those of the Gorgon or of Dionysus. If they are meant to be the eyes of the Gorgon Medusa, then they reflect a similar sentiment as mentioned before to warn the drinker and other of excess. By illustrating the eyes of Dionysus surrounded by grapevines, the base tends to be paying homage to Dionysus, the god of wine. Moreover, the way the kylix becomes a mask also reflects Dionysus’s playful nature and his sphere of influence of theater as masks were used extensively in ancient Greek theater (Curtis).


Atsma, Aaron J. 2000. “DIONYSUS – Greek God of Wine & Festivity.” Theoi Greek Mythology.

Atsma, Aaron J. 2017. “MEDUSA & GORGONS (Medousa & Gorgones) – Snake-Haired Monsters of Greek Mythology.” 2017.

“Black-Figure Cup – Type a (Wine Cup).” n.d. Accessed April 21, 2023.–type-a-winecup?ctx=dbb3f04ef2b150e1b90d16f2b8b89e21ed26da75&idx=4.

“Collections Online | British Museum.” n.d.

Curtis, Todd. 2018. Classical Mythology in the Visual and Performing Arts. Top Hat.

Hesiod. 1997. Theogony. Translated by M L West. Oxford ; New York: Clarendon Press.

“UTIMCO.” n.d. Accessed April 21, 2023.

By Anika Yamdagni

Athena and Tethrippon (Quadriga) depicted on a Black-Figure Neck-Amphora in the Blanton Museum

Creator(s): These creators of this amphora are unknown, but they are attributed to artists who were active during the last two decades of the 6th century BCE, named after the potter Leagros (Shapiro). They were specifically given this name after five hydriai, water-carrying jugs, with kalos inscriptions found praising Leagros. A few identified members of the Leagros Group include the Acheloos Painter, Chiusi Painter, and Daybreak Painter.

Known for their distinctive black-figure pottery, they decorated large vessels in a complex style which featured intricate designs and overlapping figures drawn in black against a red background. Their depictions favored scenes Herakles and the Trojan War, as well as Dionysian themes. In addition to their technical skill and artistic creativity, the Leagros Group was also notable for their attention to detail and their ability to capture lifelike poses and expressions in their figures.

Date of Creation: This piece of art is dated c. 510-500 BCE.

Location: This amphora is located in the Blanton Museum of Art on the second floor in the Greco-Roman art exhibit.

Acquisition: Thanks to the Archer M. Huntington Museum Fund and the James R. Dougherty Jr. Foundation, this object was brought to an exhibition at the Blanton Museum of Art on the UT Austin campus. It was likely acquired in Italy in 1820-1830 and arrived in England in 1941 by Spencer Joshua Alwyne Compton. It then likely stayed within the possession of the 2nd to the 7th Marquess of Northampton until it was sold on July 2nd, 1980, to be part of the Castle Ashby Vases collection.

Type of Art Work: Athena and Tethrippon (Quadriga) depicted on a Black-Figure Neck-Amphora (Wine Storage Vessel), 45.6 cm tall ceramic piece of pottery with terracotta medium.

Description: This amphora showcases an image of Athena, goddess of wisdom, driving a quadriga, which was commonly referred to as a tethrippon in ancient Greece. An amphora like this was specifically designed for use in symposia to hold wine, formal drinking parties that were important social occasions for elite Greek men. The ancient Greeks considered the consumption of undiluted wine to be barbaric; civilized drinkers always mixed their wine with water. Symposium vessels reflect this practice. This amphora was likely mixed with the water of a hydra into a krater. The mixture was then distributed from the krater into the kylikes of individual drinkers. Although these vases may have once been used in parties, they were eventually deposited in tombs (Blanton Museum).

Looking at the iconography on the vase, we recognize Athena from her sharp-tipped spear, majestic breastplate, and Corinthian helmet (Ovid, Metamorphoses 6. 70 ff, Mayer, 5.312). In ancient Greece, the quadriga, or tethrippon, was a four-horse chariot commonly used in athletic competitions such as the Olympics. These chariots were also used in warfare, particularly by the wealthy elite, and were often associated with victory in battle. Many myths display the quadriga being ridden by a variety of gods, such as Nike, Helios, and Ares. The four-horse chariot is also prominently featured in Roman art and architecture as the Quadriga of St. Mark’s Basilica in Venice, Italy, features four horses pulling a chariot with a statue of the archangel Michael on top, symbolizing the triumph of good over evil (Curtis). Overall, the quadriga was an important symbol of victory and power in both Greek and Roman mythology and played a significant role in their respective cultures (Nike & Chariot).

Since Athena was strongly associated with military strategy and the defense of the city, the imagery on the amphora conveys her martial nature in ancient Greek culture (Curtis). This resembles what is shown on the opposite side of the vase, as two hoplites advance over another third kneeling hoplite. Hoplites were the most common type of heavily armed foot-soldier in ancient Greece from the 7th to 4th centuries BCE. These soldiers were not only expected to fight battle in the front lines, but also be courageous to be the first attacked and ready to respond on any enemy invasion (Cartwright). On the vase, the warrior on the left carries a Boeotian shield with scooped indentations that allow him to thrust his weapon more effectively while protecting himself. Such a shield also had several other smaller indentations or ridges on the surface, which were used to improve grip and to deflect or absorb blows from enemy weapons (Blanton Museum).

According to Greek mythology, Athena is often described as engaging in battles or aiding Greek heroes during their quests, such as Perseus, Jason, and Theseus. Many warriors would believe that Athena, along with her brother Ares, would watch over the battle of war, with Athena saving those that come back and wishing for their good fortune and happiness. Many Greeks embraced this role as in myth she took a leading role in the Trojan War, fighting against the Trojans (Homeric Hymn 11 to Athena, Cashford, 11.1-4). As a result of these notions, some may believe that the depiction of Athena on this amphora is after a general victory of a people or that of a hero. Additionally, she may be arriving at a time of need under the context of the hoplites, showing her presence to bring a side she favors to victory.


“ARES GOD of – Greek Mythology.”

Atsma, Aaron. 2000. “ATHENA – Greek Goddess of Wisdom,War & Crafts.” Theoi Greek

Mythology. 2000.

“Birth of Athena – Ancient Greek Vase Painting.” n.d.

“Black-Figure Neck Amphora.” n.d. Accessed April 21, 2023. ctx=dbb3f04ef2b150e1b90d16f2b8b89e21ed26da75&idx=0.

Cartwright, Mark. 2013. “Hoplite.” World History Encyclopedia. February 9, 2013.

Cashford, Jules. 2003. The Homeric Hymns. London; New York: Penguin Books.

“Collections Online | British Museum.” n.d. Accessed April 21, 2023.

Curtis, Todd. 2018. Classical Mythology in the Visual and Performing Arts. Top Hat.

“ Leagros Group.” n.d. Accessed April 21, 2023.

Mayer, Roland. Seneca: Phaedra. London: Duckworth, 2004. Ovid. Metamorphosis. Londini, 1678.

“Nike & Chariot of Zeus – Ancient Greek Vase Painting.” n.d. Accessed April 21,

  2. Shapiro, H.A. 2021. “#Leagros: An Athenian Life.” Edited by Dylan K. Rogers and Jenifer Neils.

Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2021.

By Arul Yamdagni

Pelike with Eros Chasing a Fawn in the Blanton Museum

I. Artist: The sculptor of this particular Pelike is unknown to historians. The one piece of information that is known is that the artist is believed to be from the Gnathia region of Southern Italy. However, a remarkably similar piece of pottery is held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. This piece is from a slightly later time range around late fourth century B.C. Though its specific sculpture is also unknown, it comes from a similar region of Italy and is attributed to the Group of Bologna 585, a sector of sculptures in Northern Italy whose pieces carry distinguishing features (Eros). Similarly, the artist of this Pelike is believed to be from the Gnathia region of Southern Italy.

II. Date: This piece of art is dated around 360-300 B.C.

III. Location on Campus: The Pelike jar is located in the Blanton Museum of art on the second floor in the Greco-Roman art exhibit.

IV. Acquisition: This object was placed on UT’s campus in the Blanton Museum in 1988 as a part of the Archer M Huntington Museum Fund. After originally providing the University with the Diana of Chase statue, Mr. Huntington became infatuated with providing an art venue for the University of Texas and its students. He gave a gift of around $145,000 to start a fund for the cultivation of art around campus. This gift ultimately laid the foundation for the Art Building where the Archer M. Huntington Gallery was originally housed (“A Vision”). As an eventual addition to this collection through the Huntington fund, the Pelike of Eros chasing a fawn is not the grandest piece of the collection or most recognizable, but it demonstrates the ever present impact of love and desire on innumerable myths to the student audience. Though primarily known because of the great love story of Eros and Psyche, simply depicting Eros with a fawn simplifies and broadens the scope of the Olympians’ impact and possible interpretations.

V. Description: This Pelike Jar is simply titled “Pelike (Jar)”. It is a piece of ceramic pottery, fired black, detailed with white characters, and completed with terracotta as a medium and support. The white figures on the Pelike portray the winged somewhat effeminate god Eros chasing a fawn. There is a plant etched behind Eros and a curvy design above the fawn. White patterns encapsulate the scene on the top and bottom. Use of white, red, and yellow coloring on the piece was common for this type of ornate pottery.

In order to truly understand this piece of art, one must understand the cultural context
surrounding Eros. Two separate figures of Eros were prominent in Greek culture. One version was the primeval god who came forth form Gaia. This form of Eros represented desire and attraction, but not in a physical sense (Brettenburger). Rather, it bonded together various elements of the universe in order to spur creation, development and creativity. The other version of Eros is the son of Aphrodite. He is often depicted as a young winged man whose sphere of activity is physical attraction with respect to lust and sexual love. This version of Eros is often seen as a companion of Aphrodite, aiding her in conveying lust and sexual desire upon unsuspecting mortal and immortal victims (EROS).

The winged and youthful appearance of Eros on this Pelike makes clear that he is
representative of the later version of Eros. Though this piece of pottery is believed to be crafted right in the middle of the age of Hesiod, who yielded the former interpretation of Eros and the works of Ovid who made popular the secondary view of Eros, it can clearly be determined that he is representative of this sexual love associated with later verisons of Eros. The great power of Eros to attract lovers is made evident in a scene from the Metamorphoses. When one of Eros’ arrows simply scratched Aphrodite , “She became enraptured by the beauty of a man” (Ovid, Metamorphoses 10. 525 ff). Eros has incredible power and influence over gods and mortals alike to influence their loves and effections. This is especially important in interpreting this Pelike because of the fawn Eros is chasing after. Rather than a mythological half goat-half human. This fawn is an actual young deer, often associated with young women. Deer in general are found to be associated with Artemis, who was believed to protect and defend these wild creatures (Hughes). Artemis association with virginity and purity can also be associated with these creatures. This makes Eros’ pursuit of the creature especially intriguing given that he is known as
a figure that, “smites maids’ breasts with unknown heat, and bids the very gods leave heaven and dwell on earth in borrowed forms.” (Seneca, Phaedra 290 ff). Eros great power to manipulate sexual desires coupled with the relative innocence of the young fawn show that this Pelike is meant to warn young Greeks and their guardians about the dangers of Eros. This type of controlling and manipulating lust is always lurking and ready to capture the heart of any unsuspecting victim. This piece can be understood as a warning for Greeks to stay alert and ready in case they are stricken by an attack of eros, because gods and mortals alike know of his great power and influence. But also, it can be seen as a testament to Eros’ great power, as seen by his gigantic size compared to the young fawn and its seemingly helpless flight from this great god. Though he is not depicted as the strongest amongst the gods, Eros incredible ability to influence desires and passions is unmatched and must be heeded by viewers.

Works Cited
“A Vision Grows into One of the Finest Art Collections on Any U.S. Campus.” UTIMCO, 2010.

Breitenberger, Barbara. Aphrodite and Eros the Development of Greek Erotic Mythology.
Florence: Taylor and Francis, 2013.

“Eros.” EROS – Greek God of Love (Roman Cupid, Amor). Theoi. Accessed April 29, 2022.

Hughes, J. Donald. “Artemis: Goddess of Conservation.” University of Chicago Press, October 1, 1990.

Mayer, Roland. Seneca: Phaedra. London: Duckworth, 2004.
Ovid. Metamorphosis. Londini, 1678.

“Pelike (Jar). Blanton Museum of Art Collections.” Omeka RSS.

By Benjamin Martin Spangler

Saturn Devouring His Chicken

Nihal Tangeda sent me this humorous photo of Saturn devouring some KFC. The image comes from famous Goya’s painting Francisco Goya’s Saturn Devouring His Child, which is based on the Greek myth of Cronus eating his children, as told in Hesiod’s Theogony. Goya’s paining is perhaps the most shocking image of the brutality of Saturn’s cannibalism. This painting is part of his so-called ‘Black Paintings’, which were painted on the walls of Quinta del Sordo. The Quinta del Sordo was a house Goya lived in during a dark period in his life (1819-1823), a time when he sought to escape the world around him. Unlike his other paintings, the Black Paintings were never meant for the public. The transference of Goya’s Saturn Devouring His Child to canvas led to it becoming one of the most well-recognized paintings in the Prado Museum in Madrid.

Sirens in the MET

Maria Buendia sent me this photo of her trip to the MET this Summer. She took this picture of her and a Greek terracotta statuette of Siren (c. 500-550 BC). In early Greek art, Sirens are depicted as mischwesen (mixed-creatures) that had the head of woman and the body of a bird. Over time, they became more anthropomorphic in artwork, being depicted as female figures with bird legs and wings. In Greek literature, most notably the Odyssey and Argonautica, they are dangerous female monsters that lived near the seashores, luring sailors to their their death through their music/song. As to their shape, the origins of the feminine nature of the Sirens could be based on the Greeks’ personification of the coastline as a deceptive female with the irresistible power to draw sailors to their destruction. Perhaps the bird form of these monsters represents the seabirds that sailors listened to and looked for when determining if they were approach land.



The Farnese Hercules at UT’s Stark Center

I. Artist: The Farnese Hercules is credited to be carved by a sculptor named Glycon of Athens. Although there is no mention of Glycon in ancient writing, it is believed that he lived in the period between Lysippus and the early Roman emperors. Lysippus is credited to creating the Heracles of Sicyon, a bronze statue that art historians believe to be the
inspiration for Glycon’s Farnese Hercules. The name of the artist is carved into the main
support of the statue, and the inclusion of the Omega in Glycon’s name, a feature not
used in inscriptions until shortly before the Christian era, solidifies the time period
Glycon might have lived.

II. Date: The original Farnese Hercules was created in the 3rd century AD. The replicated statue displayed at the H.J Lutcher Stark Center for Physical Culture and Sports was created sometime between 2007 and 2009. According to the Stark Center’s webpage, “the Stark Center’s Farnese Hercules was made from a mold taken from the original Farnese Hercules at the Museo Archeologico Nazionale in Naples, Italy in approximately 1900.”

III. Location: A copy of Glycon’s Farnese Hercules is currently on display at the entrance of the H.J Lutcher Stark Center for Physical Culture and Sports located in the Darrel K. Royal Texas Memorial Stadium on the University of Texas campus.

IV. Acquisition: The Stark Center Directors, Drs. Jan and Terry Todd, both admirers of Glycon’s sculpture, adopted the symbol of Hercules to emphasize their emblem of strength, determination, and commitment. With knowledge that the Royal Museum for Art and History in Belgium was capable of casting replicas of the Farnese Hercules, the directors commissioned for a statue to be copied for the Stark Center. The Stark Center’s Farnese Hercules was molded from the original Glycon sculpture, now located at the Museo Archeologico Nazionale in Naples, Italy. In June of 2009, the replica was shipped in four large crates, and in August 2009, Hercules was assembled and installed in the Stark
Center by two artists from the Atelier. The Stark Center contains a library, archives, and
museum dedicated to the study of physical culture and sports. In the context of the
athletic world, literature on strength training and sports, and awards for Longhorn and
Olympic victories, the Farnese Hercules is a symbol for the modern athlete. According to
Terry Todd, the Farnese Hercules is at the Stark Center to serve as a reminder of the
importance of physical culture in human culture. At the Stark Center, the Farnese can be
perceived as the physique modern athletes and people can achieve.

V. Description: The Farnese Hercules carved by Glycon of Athens is a ten and half foot marble statue. Since the replica displayed at the Stark Center is molded from the original statue, the replica is of the same stature as the original. The statue portrays a tired Hercules leaning on his club. The skin of the Nemean Lion is draped over the club, signifying that the Greek hero is resting. Other indications of Hercules’ weariness is his downward gaze and relaxed left hand. In his right hand, mysteriously held behind his back, are the Golden Apples of Hesperides. This inclusion in the sculpture, along with the state the hero is portrayed to be in, signifies Hercules has just completed his eleventh labor.

The classical mythological elements included in this statue are the Nemean Lion skin, the
club, and most significantly the Golden Apples of Hesperides. According to myth,
Hercules had to serve King Eurystheus as a way of purifying himself. For his first labor,
Hercules was sent to kill the Nemean lion, a monster with impenetrable skin. Hercules
succeeded by choking out the beast. (Apollodorus, Library, 34). After his success, the
skin animal can be seen as worn armor for the hero. Eurystheus assigned the Hercules ten
labors, but he added two more after being unsatisfied with Hercules’ completion of two
prior labors. For his eleventh labor, the king ordered Hercules to obtain the Golden
Apples of Hesperides from Mount Atlas in the land of the Hyperboreans. This location
was practically unknown and a great trek for any mortal man. The Apples were a
wedding gift for Hera from Gaia, and in addition to being at the western edge of the
world, the Golden Apples were guarded by an immortal serpent with one hundred heads
and the Hesperides. Hercules travelled far, coming across other challenges on his journey,
to reach the Golden Apples. Before reaching his destination, Hercules was advised by
Promthesues, after saving him from his eternal punishment, to send Atlas, the god
holding up the sky, to obtain the apples for him. To do this Hercules offered Atlas he’d
hold the sky in return. However, after retrieving the Apples, Atlas plotted to leave
Hercules in his place. With quick thinking, Hercules tricked Atlas into holding up the sky
again and leaving with the Apples. Other myths say Hercules himself retrieved the
Apples from the serpent (Apollodorus, Library, 39-40). However the myth of Hercules’
eleventh labor is expressed, it is evident that he travelled far and faced adversities on his
journey to the Hesperides. This weariness is therefore accurately portrayed in the statue
carved by Glycon. The Farnese Hercules clearly holds a mythological context with its
presence. The posture of the hero and the inclusions of elements from the twelve labors
support how Glycon’s statue is an artwork that tells a story about enormous burden. From
a real world perspective, The Farnese Hercules holds a symbol of athleticism, strength,
and physical health. The original Farnese Hercules was discovered in the ruins of the
Baths of Caracalla in 1546, and it is believed that the statue served as one of the many
artworks that decorated the public baths in Rome. In Ancient Roman culture, public baths
were symbols of community and health. These baths were connected to gymnasiums and
included libraries containing Greek and Roman literature. In essence, the Roman baths
were places where one could better themselves mentally and physically. It’s no surprise
that a statue of Hercules was most likely commissioned to be made as decor for these
baths since Hercules can be perceived as a symbol of physical health, athleticism, and
strength of mind and body, all attributes the Roman baths, and gymnasiums connected,
centralized. Overall the symbolic meaning of the Farnese Hercules can be a combination
from its mythological context and original location in Rome. The mythological aspect of
the statue depicts a hero who has gone to extreme lengths to finish his task, embodying a
sense of accomplishment at the expense of physical strain. In a way this interpretation
can also be translated into modern symbolism of Hercules as an embodiment of human
body physical achievement and athleticism. For the modern human, achieving a physique
like Hercules is an accomplishment that comes at the expense of physical strain.
Similarly, athletes accomplish their victories at the expense of many sacrifices. These
interpretations of the Farnese Hercules support why Drs. Jan and Terry Todd wanted a
replica of the statue at Stark Center, an area for athletic achievement and overall physical
health accomplishment.


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Accessed May 1, 2021.

Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker, Dr. Beth Harris, and Dr. Steven Zucker. “Lysippos,
Farnese Hercules.” Smarthistory. Accessed May 1, 2021.

“The Farnese Hercules.” H.J. Lutcher Stark Center for Physical Culture and Sports.
Accessed May 1, 2021.

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Trzaskoma, Stephen M., R. Scott Smith, Stephen Brunet, and Thomas G. Palaima.
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“Visitors.” H.J. Lutcher Stark Center for Physical Culture and Sports, February 12, 2020.

Vermeule, Cornelius. “The Weary Herakles of Lysippos.” American Journal of
Archaeology 79, no. 4 (1975): 323-32. Accessed May 1, 2021. doi:10.2307/503065.

Author: Michael Anthony