Archaeological Tokens

Making Tokens Talk
With Niloufar Moghimi, “Making Tokens Talk” in Anna Margherita Jasink, Judith Weingarten and Silvia Ferrara, eds., Non-Scribal Communication Media in the Bronze Age Aegean and Surrounding Areas, Firenze University Press, Firenze, 2017, p. 175-183.
TokensDownload the PDF (852 KB)

Tokens: their Significance for the Origin of Counting and Writing
TokensDownload the PDF (1.2 MB)

The Evolution of Writing
The Evolution of Writing Download the PDF (1.4 MB)

Tokens and Writing: the Cognitive Development
Tokens and Writing: the Cognitive Development Download the PDF (1.2 MB)

Tokens in China, Europe and Africa – The significance
Tokens in China, Europe and Africa – The significance Download the PDF (127 KB)

From Accounting to Writing
From Accounting to Writing Download the PDF (127 KB)

Articles on Tokens in Different Languages

The Austinite who discovered the origins of writing
Link to the Michael Barnes article on Austin American Statesman
Video Extra from Austin American Statesman Article

Watch on YouTube

Research on Tokens by Other Scholars

Major Additions to the 1992 Token Catalogue in Denise Schmandt-Besserat’s Before Writing, Vol. 2

Page last updated: 3/28/19