1. Zhao, L.; Beyer, N. J.; Borisova, S. A.; Liu, H.-w. “β-Glucosylation as a Part of Self-Resistance Mechanism in Methymycin/Pikromycin Producing Strain Streptomyces venezuelae.Biochemistry 2003, 42, 14794-14804.
  2. Wong, A.; He, X.; Liu, H.-w. “Novel Enzymatic Mechanisms in the Biosynthesis of Unusual Sugars.“In Carbohydrate-based Drug Discovery, Wong, C.-H. Ed.; Wiley-VCH:Weinheim; 2003, Vol. 2, pp. 713-745.
  3. Liu, P.; Liu, A.; Yan, F.; Wolfe, M. D.; Lipscomb, J. D.; Liu, H.-w. “Biochemicaland Spectroscopic Studies on (S)-2-Hydroxypropylphosphonic Acid Epoxidase: A Novel Mononuclear Non-heme Iron Enzyme.Biochemistry 2003, 42, 11577-11586.
  4. Huang, Z.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, H.-w. “Probingthe Mechanism of UDP-Galactopyranose Mutase from Escherichia coli Using 1-Deaza- and 5-DeazaFAD.Bioorg. Chem. 2003, 31,494-502.
  5. Molitor, E. J.; Paschal, B. M.; Liu, H.-w. “Cyclopropane Fatty Acid Synthase from Escherichia coli: Enzyme Purificationand Inhibition by Vinylfluorine and Epoxide Containing Substrate Analogs.ChemBioChem. 2003,4, 1352-1356.
  6. Koropatkin, N. M.; Liu, H.-w.; Holden, H. M. “High Resolution X-ray Structure of Tyvelose Epimerase fromSalmonella typhi.J. Biol. Chem. 2003, 278, 20874-20881.
  7. Leriche, C.; He, X.; Chang, C.-W. T.; Liu, H.-w. “Reversal of the Apparent Regiospecificity of NAD(P)H-Dependent Hydride Transfer: The Properties of the Difluoromethylene Group, A Carbonyl Mimic.J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 6348-6349.
  8. Boyer, N.; Alam, J.; Hallis, T. M.; Guo, Z.; Liu, H.-w. “The Biosynthesis of CDP-L-Colitose: C-3 Deoxygenation is Catalyzed by a Unique Coenzyme B6-Dependent Enzyme.J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003,125, 5584-5585.
  9. Zhao, Z.; Chen, H.; Li, K,; Du, W.; He, S.; Liu, H.-w. “Reactionof 1-Amino-2-methylenecyclopropane-1-carboxylate with1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate Deaminase: Analysis and Mechanistic Implications.Biochemistry 2003, 42, 2089-2103.
  10. Zhao, Z.; Liu, P.; Murakami, K.; Kuzuyama, T.; Seto, H.; Liu, H.-w. “Mechanistic Studies of HPP Epoxidase: Configuration of the Substrate Governs Its Enzymatic Fate.Angew Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 2002, 41, 4529-4532 (Angew. Chem. 2002, 114, 4708-4711).
  11. Agnihotri, G.; Liu, H.-w. “Enoyl-CoA Hydratase: Reactions, Mechanisms, and Inhibition.Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2002, 11, 9-20.
  12. He, X.; Liu, H.-w. “Mechanisms of Enzymatic C-O Bond Cleavages in Deoxyhexose Biosynthesis.Cur. Opin. Chem. Biol. 2002, 6, 590-597.
  13. Chen, H.; Yamase, H.; Murakami, K.; Chang, C.-W. T.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, Z.; Liu, H.-w. “Expression, Purification and Characterization of Two N,N-Dimethyltransferases, TylM1 and DesVI, Involved in the Biosynthesis of Mycaminose and Desosamine.Biochemistry, 2002, 41, 9165-9183.
  14. Chang, C.-W. T.; Liu, H.-w. “Synthesis of TDP-3-Amino-3,4,6-trideoxy-α-D-xylo-hexo-pyranose, The Immediate Precursor of TDP-α-D-Desosamine.Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2002, 12, 1493-1496.
  15. Vogan, E. M.; Bellamacina, C. R.; He, X.; Foxman, B. M.; Ringe, D.; Liu, H.-w.; Petsko, G. A. “Purification, Crystallization and Molecular Symmetry of CDP-D-glucose 4,6-Dehydratase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.Acta Cryst. 2002, D58,370-373.
  16. Zhao, Z.; Liu, H.-w. “Synthesis of Labeled 1-Amino-2-methylenecyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid, An Inactivator of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate Deaminase.J. Org. Chem. 2002, 67, 2509-2514.
  17. He, X.; Liu, H.-w. “Formation of Unusual Sugars: Mechanistic Studies and Biosynthetic Applications.Annu. Rev. Biochem. 2002, 71, 701-754.
  18. Agnihotri, G.; He, S.; Hong, L., Dakoji, S.; Wither, S. G.; Liu, H.-w. “A Revised Mechanism for the Inactivation of Bovine Liver Enoyl-CoA Hydratase by (Methylenecyclopropyl)formyl-CoA Based On Unexpected Results with the C114A Mutant.Biochemistry 2002, 41, 1843-1852.
  19. Lis, L.; Koltun, E.; Liu, H.-w.; Kass, S. R. “Ring Scission of Diastereomeric 4-Butylspiro- pentylcarbinyl Radicals As A Chemical Model For Identifying Enzyme-Catalyzed FAD Adducts Resulting From Spiropentylacetyl-CoA.J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 1276-1287.
  20. Retey, J.; Liu, H.-w. “Recent Discoveries Reveal Unusual Chemistry Catalyzed by Enzymes.” Cur. Opin. Chem. Biol. 2001, 5, 483-485.
  21. Agnihotri, G.; Liu, H.-w. “Radicals in Coenzyme B6 Dependent Enzyme Catalysis.Bioorg. Chem. 2001, 29, 234-257.
  22. Dakoji, S.; Li, D.; Agnihotri, G.; Zhou, H.-q.; Liu, H.-w. “Studies on the Inactivation of Bovine Liver Enoyl-CoA Hydratase by (Methylenecyclopropyl)formyl-CoA: Elucidation of the Inactivation Mechanism and Identification of Cysteine-114 as the Entrapped Nucleophile.J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 9749-9759.
  23. Zhao, Z; Liu, H.-w. “Synthesis of a Deoxysugar Dinucleotide Containing exo-Difluoro-methylene Moiety As a Mechanistic Probe for Studying Enzymes Involved in Unusual Sugar Biosynthesis.J. Org. Chem. 2001, 66, 6810-6815.
  24. Zhao, L.; Borisova, S.; Yeung, S.-M.; Liu, H.-w. “Study of C-4 Deoxygenation in the Biosynthesis of  Desosamine: Evidence Implicating a Novel Mechanism.J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 7909-7910.
  25. Zhang, Q.; Liu, H.-w. “Mechanistic Investigation of UDP-Galactopyranose Mutase from Escherichia coliUsing 2- and 3-Fluorinated UDP-Galactofuranose as Probes.J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 6756-6766.
  26. Liu, P.; Murakami, K.; Seki, T.; He, X.; Yeung, S.-M.; Kuzuyama, T.; Seto, H.; Liu, H.-w. “Protein Purification and Function Assignment of the Epoxidase Catalyzing the Formation of Fosfomycin.J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 4619-4620.
  27. Chen, H.; Zhao, Z.; Hallis, T. M.; Guo, Z.; Liu, H.-w. “Insights Into the Branched-chain Formation of Mycarose: Methylation Catalyzed by an S-Adenosylmethionine-DependentMethyltransferase.Angew Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 2001, 40, 607-610 (Angew. Chem. 2001, 113, 627-630).
  28. Zhang, Q.; Liu, H.-w. “Chemical Synthesis of UDP-β-L-Arabinofuranose and Its Turnover to UDP-β-L-Arabinopyranose by UDP-D-galactopyranose Mutase.Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2001, 11, 145-149.